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DRAFT COMPLETION OF WORK REPORT 
VOLUME 1: TEXT, TABLES, AND PLATES 



FOR THE 

CAMP EDWARDS IMPACT AREA 

GROUNDWATER QUALITY STUDY 



MASSACHUSETTS MILITARY RESERVATION 
CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS 



Prepared for 

NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU 
ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 



Prepared by 

OGDEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY SERVICES 

239 Littleton Road, Suite IB 

Westford, Massachusetts 01886 






L:\MMR\REPORTS\Final\drftcwrl.doc M-Y 



Please place in front of 

Draft Completion of Work Report 
Volume 1 : Text, Tables and Plates 

For the Camp Edwards Impact Area 
Groundwater Quality Study 

Massachusetts Military Reservation 
Cape Cod, Massachusetts 

Prepared for National Guard Bureau, Arlington Virginia 

Prepared by Ogden Environmental and Energy Services 

July 1, 1998 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/draftcompletiono01unse 



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July 31, 1998 



f VI 'IRQ OMENTAL AND ENERGY SERVICES 

239 Littleton Road, Suite 13 
Westford,MA01886 

978 692 9090 
Fax 978 692 6833 



■ - ■■ 



19 Sandwii 
Bourne. MA 02532 



Mr. Michael Jasinski, MMR Project Coordinator 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( 

JFK Federal Building 

Boston, MA 02203-2211 

RE: Draft Completion of Work Report - Executive Summary 

Dear Mike: 



Per discussion at the July 23, 1998 Impact Area Review Team we have completed and are 
distributing the enclosed Executive Summary of the Draft Completion of Work Report for the 
Impact Area Ground Water Study. Copies are being provided to the members of the review team 
via E-mail and regular mail for inclusion with the previously distributed reports. Additional 
copies will be distributed to those members of the public who requested copies at the recent 
Review Team meeting. 



Sincerely, 

Marc A. Grant 
Project Manager 



[Ujr rl QL. 



**l<h"0~- 



Robert H. Clemens 
Program Manager 

MAG/RHC/lw 

Enclosures 



cc: w/enclosures 

Don Muldoon, MADEP (1 copy) 
LTC Richard Murphy, NGB (1 copy) 
CPT Jim Boggess, MAARNG (6 copies) 
Impact Area Review Team (Distribution List) 



O G D E N ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERG Y SERVICES 



PW9 WSJ W*P3 ( K i 3 FT;^ 

:•:•:& SsS :•:•&! ::■:!:•: S& ! 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



MwwHWHWfl fflMffl Oj Hg ooM im m flWH m^ ^ 



ATTENTION: 



DATE: 



7/31/98 



Ms. Margery Adams 
Mr. Marty Aker 
Mr. Juan Bacigalupi 
Ms. Gabrielle Belfit 
CPT James Boggess 
Ms. Linda Burdzinski 
Mr. Bob Burt 
Mr. Tom Cambareri 
Mr. J. Harry Donald 
Dr. Joel Feigenbaum 
Mr. Hap Gonser 



Mr. James Graham 
Ms. Elizabeth Higgins 
Ms. Ann Marie Hocking 
Mr. Bud Hoda 
Mr. Richard Hugus 
Ms. Johanna Hunter 
Mr. Steve Hurley 
Mr. Michael Jasinski 
Mr. James Kinney 
Mr. Ronald Larkin 
Mr. John Masterson 



Mr. Don Muldoon 

LTC Richard Murphy 

Ms. Susan Nickerson 

Mr. Len Pinaud 

Mr. Dick Prince 

Mr. William Walsh Rogalski 

Mr. Jeff Rose 

Mr. Peter Schlesinger 

Mr. Ray D. Taylor 

Mr. Greg Yogis 

Mr. Paul Zanis 



WE ARE SENDING YOU THE FOLLOWING: 



No. Originals 


No. Copies 


Description 




1 


Draft Completion of Work Report - 
Executive Summary 









SIGNATURE: 



Marc Grant 



239 Littleton Road, Suite IB 

Westford, MA 01886 

(978) 692-9090 



Executive Summary 



ES.1 Background 

The purpose of this Completion of Work Report (here after referred to as the "Report" is 
to summarize activities and results for the existing work under the Impact Area 
Groundwater Study initiated by the National Guard Bureau (NGB ) pursuant to U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrative Order SDWA 1-97-1019, 
effective March 6, 1997. This Report was prepared using validated data from samples at 
locations described in the Final Action Report and subsequent locations added through 
agency and citizen review team input. It is of note that these sampling sites were selected 
based upon their current or past use in military training operations and the presence of 
current or historical ground features taken from aerial photographs, archive reports, and 
witness interviews. Although these sites are not a complete list of all possible sampling 
sites, they do represent a comprehensive list of those sites suspected to present the 
greatest threat to the aquifer. The sample sites are: 



438 shallow soil samples 

representing 3942 individual 

locations from 22 areas; 

280 soil boring profile samples from 

29 soil borings; 

75 sediment samples from 19 water 

bodies; 

64 surface water samples from 19 

water bodies; 

6 storm water samples from the 

perimeter of the Impact Area; 

295 groundwater profiling samples 

from 14 borings; and 

128 groundwater samples from 122 

monitoring wells. 



Types of Samples 



Shallow Soil 438 



Deep Soil 



Sediment 75 
Surface Water 




Monitoring Wells 128 
Storm Water 6 



Groundwater Profiles 295 



Samples were routinely analyzed for over 200 separate compounds. The primary 
compounds of concern, analytes, were those associated with military use or disposal of 
explosives, propellant charges, and pyrotechnics. 



All acronyms are provided in a Glossary of Terms at the end of the Executive Summary. 



Other important compounds sampled were: 



Chemicals by Compound Grouping 



inorganics, 

metals, 

volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 

semi-volatile organic compounds 

(SVOCs), 

pesticides, 

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 

herbicides 



SVOCs 64 



VOCS 42 




Explosives 19 



I Field Parameters 6 



^rbicides 16 ~*^^^*^~ Metals/Inorganics 38 
Pesticides 21 PCBs ? 



See Sections 3.5 through 3.9 of the Report for additional detail. Additional work is 
planned under the Impact Area Groundwater Study as described in Section ES.3, and will 
be reported in subsequent documents. 

ES.2 Results 



Nine compounds were detected in groundwater in the 128 monitoring well sampled at 
concentrations exceeding health-based criteria for drinking water, Long Term Health 
Advisories or Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Two of these compounds, zinc 
and BEHP, appear to be introduced through sampling and laboratory procedures, 
respectively, and are not believed to be present in the aquifer at the measured 
concentrations (see Sections 4.4.8, 5.2.5.8, or F.4.2 of the Report). The seven remaining 
compounds are RDX, TNT, antimony, lead, molybdenum, sodium, and thallium. Three 
separate wells exceeded EPA health-based levels, MCLs, for one of the following 
compounds; antimony, lead, and molybdenum. Thallium exceeded health-based criteria 
in three wells and sodium in six wells (see Sections 4.6.2.2 and 5.2.5 of the Report). The 
128 monitoring wells sampled exceeded the EPA Health Advisory for RDX in nine wells 
and for TNT in one well (see Section 4.6.2.2 of the Report). 



Out of over 2000 individual analyses for 
explosives in groundwater less than one 
percent had detectable levels. 



The explosives found in groundwater 
represent less than 13 percent of the total 
number of wells sampled. 



Explosives Detected in Groundwater 



Explosives in Monitoring Wells 



















■ Non-Detects ■ Detects 






^ 








3,000 


<1% 






2.000 


- 








1,000 




1 










li-* 





200 



150 




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ES. 2. 1 Explosives and Munitions-Related Compounds 

Locations of the explosive detections are shown in Figure ES-1 and are described in the 
following paragraphs: 

GROUNDWATER SAMPLING FOR EXPLOSIVES 

1 D DEMOLITION AREA 1 had the highest concentrations of explosives in groundwater and 
was one of only two locations where RDX and HMX were detected in both soil and 
groundwater. This was also the only location where an explosive was detected in soil at a 
depth of more than two feet - actual detection at 14 ft. Demolition Area 1 was also the only 
location with detections of TNT breakdown products in soil and groundwater (see Sections 
4.5.10 and 5.2.1.3 of the Report). 

Based on groundwater modeling performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the projected 
flow path for contaminants at Demolition Area 1, MW-19S*, is shown in Figure ES-2. The 
flow path indicates the position groundwater would reach after migrating for 10, 20, 30, 40, 
50, 60, and 70 years from MW-19S. Demolition Area 1 was first designated as a demolition 
training area in 1981 based on Camp Edwards archival information. The area was previously 
used as a small arms range starting around 1941 and may have been used for the destruction 
of unexploded ordnance. Given the sites history, the expected maximum extent of 
contamination travel downgradient from Demolition Area 1, MW-19S, would be located 
between the 10 and 20-year indexes on Figure ES-2. Water supply wells adjacent to the 
MW-19 particle track path were tested and found free of explosives. Groundwater 
monitoring wells are currently being installed in these locations as part of the immediate 
response plan for Demolition Area 1 . These response wells will more accurately characterize 
both the extent of contaminant travel and down gradient levels of contamination. 

2D FOUR OTHER LOCATIONS had concentrations of RDX exceeding the EPA Health 
Advisory. These sites include two wells at the Chemical Spill- 19 (CS-19) area - a known 
disposal site - two wells at the MW-1 site, one well at the MW-2 site, and one well at the 
MW-23 site. The well at MW-23 is northwest of the Impact Area, but the projected flow 
path for the contaminants detected at this location suggest the RDX originated within the 
Impact Area. Particle tracks projected back to their origins for groundwater at these wells are 
provided in Figure ES-3, based on groundwater modeling performed by the U. S. Geological 
Survey. RDX concentrations in these wells ranged from 2.3 to 19 parts per billion. HMX, 
RDX, and TNT were not detected in soil samples from the Impact Area. Other groundwater 
detections included HMX at 0.53-7.6 parts per billion, PETN at 39 parts per billion, 2A-DNT 
at 0.6 parts per billion, and 4A-DNT at 0.7 parts per billion. There is no EPA health-based 



MW is used in this report to denote new monitoring wells installed as part of the Impact Area Ground 
Water Study. The number shown after the MW- is the number given the site where the new well(s) were 
installed. Following the well number are the letters S, M, and/or D. These letters indicate individual well 
screens, set at shallow, medium, or deep depths within the aquifer from which individual aquifer water 
samples were collected. 



c 



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)emo Airea 2 



MW-16S 



/ 



->;\ 



MW-2c 



MW-2M 



CS19-MW0009E 
CS19-M\#0011E / CS19-MV 



I002 



MW-25S 



CS19-V1W0006E 



-1S, M 



O 



Scale In Feet 



Demo Area 1 



MW-15ID 
MW-19S 




3000 6000 



TNT Detects In Groundwater 
A Detects For TNT > MCL 
▲ Non-Detects For TNT 

RDX Detects In Groundwater 

• Detects For RDX > HA 

• Detects For RDX < HA 

• Non-Detects For RDX 

MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level 
HA = Health Advisory 




Figure ES-1: Detections of Explosives 

Exceeding Drinking Water Criteria 



t 



c 




7* 

2000 4000 



Scale In Feet 



Legend 



/\/ Expected Maximum Extent of Contaminated Travel 
,'\/ Projected Future Particle Path 
A^M\N19 Forward Particle Track 



Figure ES-2: Projected Particle Pathlines and 
Estimated Travel Times From RDX Detections At MW19 



( 



c 




4000 8000 


Legend 

/\y Reverse Particle Tracks 




,^^^^™"^ - ^^^ - j 




Scale in Feet 




Figure ES-3: Reverse ParticleTracks For RDX and HMX Detections 



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limit for PETN. HMX was detected in soil at CS-19 at two test pits. PETN was detected in 
Areas 1 and 1 1, and picric acid was detected in Area 2. The groundwater results and the 
modeling by the U. S. Geological Survey suggest one or more independent sources of RDX 
are located in the areas shown in Figure E-3 (see Sections 4.5.4, 4.5.5, 4.5.9.3, 4.6.2.2, and 
5.2.1.1 of the Report. 

3D THE J RANGES are located just outside the southeastern section of the impact area. These 
ranges were previously used by Department of Defense contractors to test munitions and 
weapon systems. The Guard is presently conducting a more in depth archival search, which 
will identify more details regarding testing and operations at the J Ranges. MW-30S at the J- 
3 range had detections of HMX at 12 parts per billion and 4A-DNT at 0.52 parts per billion, 
and 90WT0013 between the J-3 and J-l ranges had detections of RDX at 5.2 parts per billion 
and 2,4-DANT at 0.44 parts per billion. No explosives were detected in the soil boring 
samples taken during the installation of MW-30S. No soil sampling for explosives was 
conducted near 90 WT0013 - an existing well. No explosives were detected in groundwater 
90WT0003 located between MW-30S and 90WT0013. This fact, coupled with the different 
contaminants at these locations, suggests two separate sources are present. No explosives 
were detected in monitoring wells located downgradient from MW-30S and 90WT0013 (see 
Sections 4.6.2.2 and 5.2. 1.2 of the Report. 

4D DEMOLITION AREA 2 had detections of RDX at 1.3 parts per billion and picric acid at 
0.29 parts per billion. There is no EPA health-based limit for picric acid. Detections of DNT 
was found in soil grid 13F (see Sections 4.6.2.2 and 5.2.1.4 of the Report). 

The only other detection of an explosive compound in groundwater was at MW-18D, which had 
picric acid at 0.56 parts per billion. 

SOIL SAMPLING FOR EXPLOSIVES. In addition to soil sampling conducted during 
installation of groundwater monitoring wells, the NGB collected 438 individual soil samples at 
22 Areas representative of normal training activities and potential sites past of disposal. 



Explosives were detected in soil in 13 
percent of the individual locations sampled 
including Demolition Area 1, a few sites in 
the Impact Area, and at Gun Positions 7 and 
16 (see Sections 4.5.13 and 5.2.1.5 of the 
Report). 



Explosives Detected in Soil by Areas 



The primary explosive compounds detected 

in the gun positions were DNT, with PETN 

detected at one grid in Gun Position 16. 

Di-n-butyl phthalate and 

N-nitrosodiphenylamine were other NxHCeteds 87% 

munitions-related compounds detected. 




QnFteiticns w» 
DaTDAnaas 4% 
IrrpactABa 4% 



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Explosive compounds were detected 
primarily in 0-6 inch surface soil samples. 
Two out of 22 locations had explosive 
detections occurring at the 18-24 inch depth. 



Explosives Detected in Soil 




This constituted less than 1 1 percent of all 
soil sample locations for the 0-6 inch depth 
and less than one percent for the 18-24 inch 
depth. Explosive compounds were detected 
40 out 6160 individual analyses. This 
represents less than one percent of the total 
explosive analyses for soil. 



Explosive Compound Distribution 



0-6 Inch 



18-24 Inch 



RDX 15% 
2-NT 3% ^^^^ 


PA 5% 


HMX 15% / ^B 


^k PETN 13% 


4A-2.6-DNT 5% V s 


Vj/ 2A-2.6-DNT 7% 




^^" 2,6-DNTT 7% 


2,4-DNT 30% 





HMX, RDX, and TNT were not detected in any soil samples from within the Impact Area. 
Figure ES-4 shows the locations of explosives and explosive related compounds detected in soil 
samples. 

Explosives were not detected in surface water sampling (see Section 4.7.2.1 of the Report). One 
of the 69 sediment samples contained nitroglycerin, collected from the J-3 wetland. This 
compound was not detected in any other soil, surface water, storm water, or groundwater sample 
from the Impact Area Groundwater Study. 

ES.2.2 Other Analytes 



SEVERAL VOCS WERE DETECTED at low levels in soil but appear to be introduced during 
the laboratory analysis process rather than represent actual detection's in the environment (see 
Sections 4.4.4 through 4.4.7 of the Report). Chloroform was the VOC detected most widely in 
groundwater. Chloroform appears frequently in groundwater on the Upper Cape, and its 
presence does not appear to be related to activities at Camp Edwards (see Section 4.4.5 of the 
Report). Neither chloroform nor any other VOCs were detected in concentrations exceeding 
health-based drinking water criteria (see Sections 4.6.1.2 and 5.2.2 of the Report). 

A NUMBER OF SVOCs, primarily PAHs and phthalates were detected in surface soil (see 
Sections 4.5.2 through 4.5. 14 and 5.2.3 of the Report). N-nitrosodiphenylamine was present at 
two gun positions as was di-n-butyl phthalate, which is discussed above as a munitions-related 
compound (see also Section 4.4.9 of the Report). BEHP was the only SVOC detected in 
groundwater. The levels frequently exceeded the MCL of 6 parts per billion. There is 
overwhelming evidence the BEHP detections in soil and groundwater were introduced during the 
laboratory analysis and are not detections resulting from an actual environmental release 



( 



c 




2000 4000 



Scale In Feet 



Legend 

d Detects For Explosives 
■ Non-Detects For Explosives 



Figure ES-4: Explosives in Soil Samples 



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L 



(see Section 4.4.8 of the Report). The phthalates and PAHs are unlikely to pose threats to 
groundwater considering their relatively low mobility in the environment. 

THE PESTICIDES DETECTED most frequently in soil samples were DDT and DDE. 
Pesticides were detected in background samples collected outside of the Massachusetts Military 
Reservation (MMR) (see Sections 4.5.2 through 4.5.14 and F.3.1 of the Report). These 
compounds were not detected in groundwater samples (see Sections 4.6.2.2 and 5.2.4 of the 
Report). The detections of pesticides in groundwater included: 

• a-BHC and b-BHC on the western perimeter of MMR - Bourne potential replacement wells 
95-6 and 95-15, 

• dieldrin on the western perimeter, BHW215083, and Demolition Area 1, MW-19S, 

• endrin aldehyde on the southeast perimeter of the Impact Area, MW-29S, 

The dieldrin detections did not exceed the Health Advisory of 0.5 parts per billion. There is no 
EPA health-based limit for the other pesticides detected (see Sections 4.6.2.2 and 5.2.4 of the 
Report). 

PCBS WERE NOT DETECTED in groundwater or sediment samples (see Sections 4.6.2.2, 
4.7.2.4, and 5.2.4 of the Report). One PCB was detected in surface water samples from Deep 
Bottom Pond, Grassy Pond, and Gibbs Pond. There were three detections of PCBs in Areas 16 
and 17. These detections were found in 0-6 inch soil samples and there were no detections in 
deeper samples from the same location (see Section 4.5.13 of the Report). 

THE HERBICIDES DETECTED most frequently in soil samples were MCPA, 2,4,5-T, and 
dicamba. None of these compounds were detected in groundwater. Herbicides were also 
detected in background samples collected outside of the MMR (see Section 4.7.2.4 and 5.2.4 of 
the Report). 

MCPP, which is a degradation product of MCPA, was detected in two wells on the western 
perimeter of MMR, Long Range Water Supply 8-2 and 95-6, (see Section 4.6.2.2 of the Report). 
There is no EPA health-based limit for MCPP. Two other herbicides were detected in 
groundwater: Silvex at Demolition Area 1, MW-19S, and PCP west of the Impact Area, 
MW-23D. Both compounds were detected at concentrations below their MCLs. 

METALS WERE TYPICALLY FOUND in samples collected for soil, groundwater, surface 
water, and sediment (see Sections 4.5.2 through 4.5.14, 4.6.2.2, 4.7.2.5, 4.8, and 5.2.5 of the 
Report). Background values were determined for soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment 
(see Sections F.3.2, F4.2, and F.5.2 of the Report). In many cases, the metals detected exceeded 
the calculated background values. There are no clear patterns to indicate Impact Area and 
Training Range activities are responsible for metal values over background. Elevated metals in 
monitoring well samples are believed to be caused by the sampling process for groundwater (i.e. 
turbid, or cloudy water with suspended particles) and non-representative background sample 
locations and small population size for soils. Thus, the metals detected appear to be unrelated to 
Impact Area and Training Range activities (see Section 5.2.5 of the Report). 



m 



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ES.3 Continuing Investigations 

At Demolition Area 1, where the highest RDX concentration in groundwater was measured, 
additional investigations are underway in accordance with an Immediate Response Plan 
approved by EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. This plan 
includes resampling of the MW-19 well, installation of nine additional wells at three sites, and 
groundwater profiling of the area downgradient of the contaminants. Additional actions will be 
planned when the results of The Response Plan are available. 

ES.4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

s ES.4.1 Conclusions 
Soils 

• With the exception of Demolition Area 1 and the gun positions, few areas had detections of 
explosive compounds. 

• Soil at Demolition Area 1 exhibited the presence of RDX, HMX, and TNT breakdown 
products as a result of open burning or detonation of explosives. 

• Soil at the high and medium use gun positions exhibited the presence of DNT as a result of 
the use of propellants. 

• Many of the detected metals were measured at concentrations exceeding the proposed 
background criteria. 

• VOCs detected at low levels in soil, appear to have been introduced by the laboratory rather 
than detections resulting from environmental releases. 

• SVOCs detected in soil consisted mainly of PAHs and phthalates, although several phenolic 
compounds were also detected. BEHP was the SVOC detected most frequently although 
these detections appear to have been introduced by the laboratory. 

• Pesticide and herbicide compounds are present throughout the study area including 
background sampling locations, and appear to be largely related to historic applications 
across the Upper Cape for pest control or power transmission line right-of-way maintenance. 

Groundwater 

• Explosive compounds were detected at several locations in the aquifer, and appear to be 
limited to within the MMR property boundary. The highest concentrations of RDX were 
measured at MW-19S located at Demolition Area 1 . Demolition Area 2 appears to be less 
impacted with only low levels of RDX present in the groundwater. There are limited 
detections of explosives exceeding health advisories. 

• Antimony, lead, molybdenum, sodium, and thallium were detected in groundwater at 
concentrations above health-based criteria at several locations. These detections appear to be 
isolated with no discernible patterns or trends. 



11 



• Chloroform was widely detected in groundwater at low levels throughout the study area, 
including background locations. Chloroform is believed to be present in groundwater on 
Cape Cod as a result of sources and distribution mechanisms separate from any activities at 
Camp Edwards. 

• Other VOCs, mainly acetone, were detected sporadically at low levels in groundwater. The 
pattern of detections and other evidence supports the possibility these detections were 
introduced by the laboratory. 

• SVOCs, with the exception of BEHP, were not detected in groundwater. There is 
overwhelming evidence BEHP detections were introduced by the laboratory. 

• Pesticides and herbicides were detected in groundwater at a few locations at low levels, 
mainly near the western boundary of MMR along a power transmission line right-of-way. 

Surface Water. Sediment, and Storm Water 

• No explosive compounds were detected in surface water samples. 

• Nitroglycerin was detected in a sediment sample from the J-3 Wetland. 

• The distribution of other compounds in water bodies and runoff was similar to the 
distribution in soil samples. 

Based on the field investigations conducted to date, it appears training activities, with the 
possible exception of demolition training have not caused contamination sufficient to impact the 
underlying aquifer. The only significant detections of explosives in groundwater directly related 
to the presence of explosives in surface soil is at Demolition Area 1, an area of intense munitions 
demolition. Sources of the scattered detections of inorganics that exceed health-based criteria 
are unclear at this time. Other detections of compounds in groundwater, such as chloroform, 
BEHP, pesticides, and herbicides have not been directly related to training activities. Area-wide 
distribution of these compounds, and laboratory cross-contamination, are plausible and likely 
explanations for these detections. 

ES4.2 Recommendations 

Recommendations for additional work based on these results include the following: 

• Focus additional investigations on Demolition Area 1 . A response plan is currently being 
implemented for this area. 

- Continue efforts to characterize the source and extent of this contamination in 
both soil and groundwater. 

- Initiate studies to better understand the fate and transport of explosive compounds. 

- Continue to utilize the U. S. Geological Survey flow model to identify areas of 
investigation and focus on appropriate depths in the aquifer. 

• Initiate investigations of the other detections of explosives in groundwater, at MW- 1 , MW-2, 
MW-23, MW-30, and FS-12. Although concentrations of explosives in these areas are lower 
than at Demolition Area 1, these areas may also pose threats to current or future drinking 
water supplies. Investigations could include upgradient and downgradient wells sampled for 
explosive compounds. 



1? 



Focus future groundwater investigations in the Impact Area on the principal contaminants of 

concern, namely the explosive compounds and, in a few areas, specific metals. Results of the 

current study indicate VOC, SVOC, pesticide, and herbicide analytes are not associated with 

contaminants in these areas and may not be relevant to future investigations. 

The proposed background criteria should be reconsidered in view of the relatively low 

background values for soil, compared with other background studies and other available 

information. 



) 



13 



Glossary of Terms for the Completion of Work Report 

Acetone - Also known as dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone and beta-ketopropane - A volatile organic 
compound which is a manufactured chemical found naturally in the environment in plants, trees, volcanic 
gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat. Acetone is used to make plastic, fibers, 
drugs, and other chemicals. It is also used as a solvent. 

2AmDNT - 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene - a primary breakdown product of TNT. 

4AmDNT - 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene - a primary breakdown product of TNT. 

Antimony - A silvery white metal found in the earth's crust Antimony is only used in alloys. Antimony 
alloys are used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet metal, metal piping, bearings, castings and pewter. 
Antimony oxide is added to textiles and plastics as a fire retardant. It is also used in paints, ceramics, 
fireworks, and as enamels for plastics, metal and glass. EPA has established a MCL of 6 parts per billion 
for antimony in drinking water. 

Aquifer - A water-bearing layer of rock (including gravel and sand) that will yield water in usable 
quantities to a well or spring. Rock or soil through which groundwater moves easily. 

Background concentration - Concentration of a substance usually present in the environment. 
Background concentration is measured in order to give a more accurate measurement of levels of the 
substance added by human activity (by subtracting existing levels from the added levels of the substance). 
Also referred to as background levels. 

Benzene Hexachloride - BHC - Also known as hexachlorocyclohexane or HCH - The pure form of the 
insecticide Lindane. Benzene hexachloride has several isomers, forms, including Alpha, Beta, and 
Gamma. See Lindane. 

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate - BEHP - Also known as di (2-ethhyhexyl) phthalate. A semi-volatile 
organic compound used as a plasticizer. EPA has established a MCL of 6 parts per billion for bis (2- 
ethylhexyl) phthalate in drinking water. 

Chloroform - Also known as trichloromethane - Chloroform, a member of the Trihalomethane family, is 
a volatile organic compound. Small amounts are formed when chlorine is added to water. Chlorine is 
used as a disinfectant for sewage treatment plants, drinking water treatment, swimming pools and spas. 
There are many ways chloroform can enter the environment. Chloroform is also commercially produced. 
EPA has established a MCL of 100 parts per billion for chloroform in drinking water, and a MCL of 80 
parts per billion for total trihalomethanes (which includes chloroform) in drinking water. 

Composite sample - A sample composed of a mixture of soil taken from a larger area. 

Contaminant - Any material that, by reason of its action upon, within, or to a person, is likely to cause 
harm 

2,6-DANT - 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene - a breakdown product of TNT. 

Deep Monitoring Well - A monitoring well with the well screen set a few feet above the bottom of the 
aquifer which is designated as either bedrock or the silty-clay layer on top of the bedrock. 



14 



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Detection Limit - The lowest concentration a specific compound can be quantified for a given analytical 
method 

Dicamba - A herbicide used to control annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. Dicamba is highly mobile 
in soils. 

4,4-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) - A manufactured chemical widely used as an insecticide 
on agricultural crops and to control disease carrying insects. DDT does not occur naturally. Except for 
public health emergencies, DDT is currently banned in the United States. Other countries still use DDT. 

4,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) - One of the breakdown products of the insecticide 
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT). 

Dieldrin - Aldrin and dieldrin are manufactured chemicals used as insecticides with similar structures. 
Aldrin quickly breaks down to dieldrin. In 1974 these insecticides were banned for all purposes except 
termite control. In 1987, EPA banned all uses. EPA has established a Long-term Health Advisory of 
2 parts per billion for dieldrin in drinking water and a Long-term Health Advisory of 0.3 parts per billion 
aldrin in drinking water. 

Di-n-butyl phthalate - A manmade semi- volatile organic compound used chiefly as a plasticizer. EPA 
has established a Drinking Water Equivalent Level of 4000 parts per billion for di-n-butyl phthalate in 
drinking water. 

2,4-DNT - 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-DNT - 2,6-dinitrotoluene - Two of six different possible forms of 
dinitrotoluene. Dinitrotoluene is a man-made compound used in explosives and propellants. It is also 
used to produce flexible polyurethane foams used in bedding and furniture. DNT may also a occur as a 
potential breakdown product of trinitrotoluene (TNT). EPA has established a Long-term Health Advisory 
of 1000 parts per billion for 2,4 -dinitrotoluene in drinking water. EPA has established a Long-term 
Health Advisory of 1000 parts per billion for 2,6 -dinitrotoluene in drinking water. 

Downgradient - Located in a downhill direction. From higher water pressure to lower water pressure. 

Explosives - Materials that have the potential to chemically change very quickly from a solid to a large 
volume of hot gases. Chemicals that cause a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and 
heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature. 

Groundwater - Water found below the surface of the land, usually in porous rock formations. 
Groundwater is the source of water found in wells and springs and is used frequently for drinking. 

Groundwater flow - The direction of groundwater movement and of any contaminants it contains. 
Governed primarily by the hydraulic gradient. 

Health Advisory - A health-based number. This identifies the health risk associated with the 
concentration of a substance. 

Heavy metals - Metallic elements with high molecular weights, such as mercury, chromium, cadmium, 
arsenic, and lead. 

Herbicide - A pesticide designed to control or kill plants, weeds, or grasses. Almost 70 percent of all 
pesticides used by farmers and ranchers are herbicides. These chemicals have wide-ranging effects on 
non-target species (other than those the pesticide is meant to control). 



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HMX - octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-13,5,7-tetrazocine - a high explosive compound EPA has 
established a Lifetime Health Advisory of 400 parts per billion of HMX in drinking water. 

Inorganic chemicals - Chemical substances of mineral origin, not of basic carbon structure. 

Inorganic compounds- Compounds that contain no carbon or only contain carbon bound to elements 
other than hydrogen. 

Insecticides - A family of chemicals designed to control insects. 

Lead - Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal found in the earth's crust. Lead has many uses 
including, batteries, ammunition, solder, pipes, roofing, x-ray shields. Because of health concerns lead 
has been removed from several products including gasoline, paints, ceramics, caulking, and pipe solder. 
The EPA has established a MCLG of parts per bilhon of lead in drinking water. Drinking water with 
more then 15 parts per billion of lead must be treated for corrosion control to alleviate the amount of lead 
leaching from lead pipes and lead solder in the distribution system 

Lindane - also known as hexachlorocyclohexane - A manufactured chemical used as an insecticide. 
Application is restricted by the EPA and can only be applied by a certified applicator. Lindane is no 
longer manufactured in the United States. EPA has established a MCL of 0.2 parts per billion of Lindane 
in drinking water. 

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - A regulated federal standard for the highest amount of an 
impurity allowed in public supplies of drinking water. States also set their own standards. 

MCPA - MCPA is a Restricted Use Pesticide and can only be purchased and used by certified 
applicators. A selective herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds. MCPA breaks down 
quickly in soils. EPA has established a Lifetime Health Advisory for MCPA of 100 ppb. 

MCPP - Mecoprop. MCPP is a General Use Pesticide. MCPP is a selective herbicide used for the 
control of broadleaf weeds. MCPP has an EPA toxicity class of III - slightly toxic. MCPP has a low 
toxicity and is practically non-toxic to birds, fish and bees. MCPP normally breaks down quickly in soils 
but will sorb to organic material. MCPP is very mobile in soils. 

Media - Specific environments - air, water, soil - which are the subject of regulatory concern and 
activities. 

Medium Monitoring Well or Intermediate Screen - A monitoring well installed in the portion of the 
aquifer below the water table and above the silty-clay layer or bedrock 

Nitroglycerin - A powerful, and extremely sensitive high explosive. It is the base for commercial 
dynamite. Nitroglycerin is not used in military explosives because of its sensitivity. Nitroglycerin is a 
component of military propellants. 

N-nitrosodiphenylamine-1 - A semi-volatile organic compound that is a member of the N-nitrosamine 
family. N-nitrosamines are present in many foods and can be formed in the body. N-nitrosamines are 
also used in the rubber industry. 

Non-detect - The result when a target analyte is not detected by the analytical method. 



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Organic compounds - Compounds containing carbon. These are far more prevalent than inorganic 
compounds and make up all living matter. 

Parts Per Billion (PPB) - A concentration representing the number of parts of a particular compound 
existing in a sample of a billion equal parts of a material such as soil or water. On a mass basis, one part 
per billion is equivalent to one billionth of a gram of chemical per gram of soil or one microgram of 
chemical per kilogram of soil. On a volume basis, one part per billion is equivalent to on microgram of 
chemical per liter of water. 

Particle Track - The theoretical path of a particle of water through a groundwater flow model. Particle 
tracks are used to predict the potential source of a particle of water or to determine the potential direction 
of flow for particles of water passing through a given point. 

Pesticide - Substances intended to repel, kill, or control any species designated a "pest" including weeds, 
insects, rodents, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms. The family of pesticides includes herbicides, 
insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, and bactericides. 

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) - A manufactured chemical used as an insecticide and fungicide. It is a 
restricted use wood preservative used on power lines poles, railroad ties, cross arms and fence posts. It is 
no longer found in home use products. EPA has established a MCL of 1 parts per billion for 
pentachlorophenol in drinking water. 

PETN- pentaerythitol tetranitrate - A highly sensitive and powerful military explosive. 

Picric Acid - ammonium 2,4,6-trinitrophenoxide/2,4,6-trinitrophenol - a sensitive explosive 
compound used in explosives, antiseptics and dyes. 

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - A group of toxic, persistent chemicals used in electrical 
transformers and capacitors for insulating purposes, and in gas pipeline systems as a lubricant. 

Propellant - An explosive for propelling projectiles. 

Screen or Well Screen - A filtering device used as the intake section of a water well to keep sediment 
from entering a water well. Usually constructed of a casing with slots cut into it, or of specially 
constructed, continuous slot, wire-wrapped screens. The purposes of a screen are to stabilize the sides of 
the hole, keep sand out of the well, facilitate flow into and within the well, and permit development of the 
aquifer adjacent to the screen. 

Semi-volatile organic compounds - Organic compounds that do not evaporate very quickly, such as 
diesel fuel. 

Shallow or Water Table Well - A monitoring well installed to sample water at the top of the aquifer. 
Typically these wells can draw water from a ten foot interval with five feet above the water table and five 
feet below the aquifer. This allows groundwater samples to be taken even if the water table fluctuates. 

Sodium - A soft, light extremely malleable silver-white metallic element, used in the production of a 
wide variety of industrially important compounds. EPA has established a guideline of 20,000 parts per 
billion sodium in drinking water 

Sorption - A general term including processes such as absorption and adsorption. 



17 



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Stormwater - The volume of runoff, groundwater flow, or stream flow attributed to a storm event. 
Stormwater flow is a quantity of discharge in excess of base flow conditions. 

Surface water - All water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, bogs, 
swamps, streams, seas, and estuaries). 

Toluene - A chemical which is naturally occurring in crude oil and in the tolu tree. Commercial toluene 
is produced during the processing of fuels (i.e. gasoline) from crude oil, from making coke from coal and 
as a byproduct in the manufacturing of styrene. Toluene is a component in fuels and is used in paints, 
paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, rubber, some printing and leather tanning. EPA has 
established a MCL of 1,000 parts per billion for toluene in drinking water. 

Trihalomethanes - A group of volatile organic compounds that are byproducts from the chlorination of 
drinking water. See Chloroform, dibromochloromethane and bromodichloromethane. 

TNT - 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene or trinitrotoluene - a high explosive compound. TNT is the most common 
military explosive. EPA has established a Lifetime Health Advisory of 2 parts per billion for 
trinitrotoluene in drinking water. 

Turbidity - A measure of how much light can pass through a water sample. A measure of the cloudiness 
or dirtiness of a given water sample expressed in NTUs. 

Unexploded ordnance - Military munitions that failed to perform as intended. 

Upgradient - Located in an upstream direction. From lower water pressure to higher water pressure. 

Validation - A process where the procedures used by a laboratory to analyze a specific sample are 
reviewed to ensure the procedures were followed and the results were correctly interpreted. 

Validated Data - Analytical results that have been through validation. 

Volatile organic compounds - Any organic compound that evaporates readily to the atmosphere. 
Volatile organic compounds contribute significantly to photochemical smog production and certain health 
problems. 

Water turbidity - A cloudy condition in water due to suspended silt or organic matter. 

Zinc - A bluish- white, lustrous metallic element used to form a wide variety of alloys including brass, 
bronze, and various solders and in galvanizing iron and other metals. EPA has established a Lifetime 
Health Advisory of 2000 parts per billion for zinc in drinking water. 



18 



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OGDEK 



ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY SERVICES 



239 Littleton Road Suite IB 

Ju 'y 2 < ] " 8 Westford. MA 01886 

978 692 9090 
Fax 978 692 6633 

Mr. Michael Jasinski, MMR Project Coordinator 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 

JFK Federal Building 

Boston, MA 02203-2211 

RE: Draft Completion of Work Report - Impact Area Groundwater Quality Study 

Dear Mike: 

On behalf of the National Guard Bureau and pursuant to the requirements of Administrative Order 
SDWA 1-97-1019, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc. (Ogden ) is submitting the 
enclosed Draft Completion of Work Report for the Camp Edwards Impact Area Groundwater Quality 
Study. 

The report has been prepared in five (5) volumes. Volume 1 contains the primary text of the report. 
Volume 2 contains the supporting figures. Volume 3 contains supporting photographs and field logs. 
Volume 4 contains a complete copy of the validated data. Volume 5 contains information regarding data 
correlations and evaluations of background data. Due to size of the report we are providing one 
complete copy to you with additional copies to the repositories and Massachusetts DEP today. We will 
follow with additional copies to you and members of the review team next week. Because of the size of 
Volume 4 (approximately 2,000 pages) we intend to limit distribution to you, MADEP and the 
repositories. Copies of the data in Volume 4 can be made available on CD-ROM to the regulatory 
agencies and stakeholders if requested. 

As noted in Volume 1, it is our intention to issue an Executive Summary to assist with review of the 
report. The Executive Summary is currently under review by the National Guard Bureau and will be 
issued prior to the Impact Area Review Team Meeting scheduled for July 23. 

We look forward to your review of the Draft Completion of Work Report. Please don't hesitate to call if 
you have any questions regarding the enclosed documents. 



Sincerely^ 




Mare A. Grant 
Project Manager 

Robert H. Clemens 
Program Manager 

Enclosures 

cc: w/enciosures 

Don Muldoon, MADEP (1 copy) 

LTC Richard Murphy, NGB (1 copy) 

CPT Jim Boggess, MAARNG (6 copies) 

MIMr?02.WPD 

® 



DRAFT COMPLETION OF WORK REPORT 
VOLUME 1: TEXT, TABLES, AND PLATES 



FOR THE 

CAMP EDWARDS IMPACT AREA 

GROUNDWATER QUALITY STUDY 



MASSACHUSETTS MILITARY RESERVATION 
CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS 



Prepared for 

NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU 
ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 



Prepared by 

OGD'EN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY SERVICES 

239 Littleton Road, Suite IB 

Westford, Massachusetts 01886 



L:\MMR\REPORTS\Final\drftcwrl.doc j u | y i, 1998 



Draft Completion of Work Report 



DISCLAIMER: 

This document has been prepared pursuant to a government administrative order (U.S. 
EPA Region I SDWA Docket No. 1-97-1019) and is subject to approval by the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are 
those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection Agency. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Don Walter and John 
Masterson with the USGS to this project. 



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I 



Draft Completion of Work Report 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

List of Acronyms xiv 

Executive Summary (to be provided) , 

1.0 Introduction 

1.1 Purpose 

1.2 Report Organization 

1.3 Project History 

1.3.1 March 1997 2 

1.3.2 April 1997 2 

1.3.3 May 1997 2 

1.3.4 June 1997 3 

1.3.5 July 1997 3 

1.3.6 August 1997 4 

1.3.7 September 1997 4 

1.3.8 October 1997 5 

1.3.9 November 1997 5 

1.3.10 December 1997 6 

1.3.11 January 1998 6 

1.3.12 February 1998 6 

1.3.13 March 1998 7 

1.3.14 April 1998 7 

1.3.15 May 1998 7 

1.3.16 June 1998 7 

1.4 Current Status of Plans and Documents 8 

2. Background 9 

2.1 Site Description 9 

2.2 Site History 9 

2.3 Investigations Under the IRP 9 

2.3.1 Chemical Spill 1 (CS-1) 9 

2.3.2 Chemical Spill 10 (CS-10) 10 

2.3.3 Chemical Spill 18 (CS-18) 10 

2.3.4 Chemical Spill 19 (CS-19) 10 

2.3.5 Fuel Spill 12 (FS-12) 1 1 

2.3.6 Fuel Spill 14 (FS-14) 11 

3. Investigation Procedures 13 

3.1 Archive Searches 13 

3.1.1 Range Use History 13 

3.1.2 Chemical Composition of Munitions 13 

3.1.3 Fate and Transport 15 

3.2 UXO Surveys 16 



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■ ■ ■ B S BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB1 



3.3 Surface Soil Sampling (Focal Areas) 17 

3.3.1 Radiological Surveys 19 

3.4 Soil Boring and Well Installation 20 

3.4.1 Barber Rig 20 

3.4.2 Sonic Rig 22 

3.4.4 Monitoring Well Construction 23 

3.4.5 Well Development 24 

3.4.6 Decontamination Procedures 25 

3.5 Subsurface Soil Sampling 25 

3.5.1 Impact Area and Demo Area 25 

3.5.2 Outside the Impact Area 27 

3.5.3 Decontamination Procedures 27 

3.6 Groundwater Profiling Sampling 28 

3.7 Groundwater Monitoring Well Sampling 28 

3.7.1 Sampling Methodology 29 

3.7.2 Analysis 31 

3.7.3 Decontamination Procedures 32 

3.8 Surface Water and Sediment Sampling 32 

3.8.1 Sampling and Analysis Methods 32 

3.8.2 Decontamination Procedures 34 

3.9 Storm Water Sampling 34 

3.10 Groundwater Elevation Measurements 35 

3.10.1 Quarterly Groundwater Level Measurements 35 

3.10.2 Data Loggers 35 

3.11 Location and Elevation Survey 36 

3.12 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 36 

3.12.1 Quality Control Samples 36 

3.12.2 Quality Assurance Audits of Field Procedures 37 

3.12.3 Quality Assurance Audits of Laboratory Procedures 38 

4. Investigation Results 41 

4.1 Archive Reports 42 

4.1.1 Range Use History 42 

4.1.2 Chemical Composition of Munitions 44 

4.1.3 Fate and Transport of Munitions 45 

4.2 Geology 47 

4.3 Hydrogeology 48 

4.4 Analytical Data Quality 50 

4.4.1 CRREL versus EPA Method 8330 50 

4.4.2 Explosive Detections by Method 8330 versus Method OM31B 53 

4.4.3 Photo Diode Array (PDA) 54 

4.4.4 Acetone 55 



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4.4.5 Chloroform 55 

4.4.6 Toluene 57 

4.4.7 Trichloroethylene 58 

4.4.8 Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 59 

4.4.9 Di-n-butyl Phthalate and Diethyl Phthalate 62 

4.4.10 Comparison of EPA and NGB Split Samples 62 

4.5 Soil Samples 63 

4.5.1 Background (Areas 41 and 42) 64 

4.5.2 Summary of all Areas 65 

4.5.3 Area 1 67 

4.5.4 Area 2 69 

4.5.5 Area 3 72 

4.5.6 Area 4 74 

4.5.7 Area 5 77 

4.5.8 Areas 6-8 81 

4.5.9 Areas 9-1 1 and 14 84 

4.5.10 Area 12 87 

4.5.1 1 Area 13 88 

4.5.12 Area 15 90 

4.5.13 Areas 16-18 91 

4.5.14 Areas 19-22 94 

4.6 Groundwater Samples 96 

4.6.1 Profile Results 97 

4.6.2 Well Results 99 

4.7 Surface Water and Sediment 107 

4.7.1 Background Areas 32, 39, 40, and 43 107 

4.7.2 Areas 23-31 and 33-38 108 

4.8 Storm Water 115 

5. Data Evaluation 116 

5.1 Preliminary Risk Evaluation 1 16 

5.2 Contaminant Distribution 118 

5.2.1 Explosives 120 

5.2.2 Volatile Organic Compounds 127 

5.2.3 Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds 128 

5.2.4 Pesticides and Herbicides 128 

5.2.5 Inorganics and Metals 130 

6. Conclusions and Recommendations 137 

6.1 Conclusions 137 

6.2 Recommendations 139 

7. References 140 



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Tables (Volume 1) 

1 . UXO Density (Intrusive Clearance) 

2. UXO Surface Clearance 

3. Monitoring Well Construction Detail 

4. Rationale for Intermediate Well Placement 

5. Well Development Summary 

6. Quarterly Water Level Measurements 

7. Lithologic Information Gathered During the I AGS 

8. Hydraulic Gradients 

9. Comparison of CRREL Screening Method Parameters with EPA Method 8330 
Parameters 

10. Comparison of CRREL Screening Method with EPA Method 8330 Results 

11. Comparison of DNT Explosive Results for Method 8330 and Method OM31B 

12. Media Sampled and Number of Toluene Detects 

13. Trichloroethylene (TCE) Detects for All Soil Samples 

14. Comparison of I AGS BEHP Groundwater Results (ug/L) with Jacobs Engineering 
Results for the CS-19 Wells 

15. Comparison of I AGS BEHP Results (ug/L) for Groundwater with EPA Split Samples 

16. Comparison of EPA Groundwater Split Samples with NGB Results 

17. Locations of Sampling Areas 

18. Frequency of Detection in Background Soil Samples 

19. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for All Areas Excluding Background 

20. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for All Areas Excluding Background 

21. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 1 

22. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 1 

23. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 2 

24. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 2 

25. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 3 

26. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 3 

27. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 4 

28. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 4 

29. Radiological Survey Data 

30. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 5 

31. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 5 

32. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 6 

33. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 6 

34. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 7 

35. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 7 

36. Detected Compounds in Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 8 

37. Detected Compounds in Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 8 



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■ 1 1 1 



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n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 9 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 9 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 10 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 10 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 1 1 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 1 1 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 14 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 14 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 12 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 12 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 13 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 13 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 15 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 1 5 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 16 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 16 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 17 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 1 7 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 18 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 18 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 19 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 19 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 20 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 20 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 21 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 21 
n Surface Soil (0-6") for Area 22 
n Subsurface Soil (>6") for Area 22 

66. Explosives in Groundwater Profiling Samples 

67. Comparison of Validated and Unvalidated Data for MW19 Profile Samples 

68. Volatiles in Groundwater Profiling Samples 

69. Frequency of Detection in Background Groundwater Samples 

70. Explosive Detects in Groundwater Monitoring Well Samples 

71. Groundwater Data for Monitoring Wells Excluding Background 

72. VOC Detects Excluding Acetone and Chloroform in Groundwater Monitoring Well 
Samples 

73. Statistical Summary of Total (Unfiltered) Metals in Groundwater Samples 

74. Statistical Summary of Dissolved (Filtered) Metals in Groundwater Samples 

75. Statistical comparison of total metal (unfiltered) results for all results and background 
groundwater with data grouped by depth 

76. Statistical comparison of dissolved metal (filtered) results for all results and 



38. Detected Compounds 

39. Detected Compounds 

40. Detected Compounds 

41. Detected Compounds 

42. Detected Compounds 

43. Detected Compounds 

44. Detected Compounds 

45. Detected Compounds 

46. Detected Compounds 

47. Detected Compounds 

48. Detected Compounds 

49. Detected Compounds 

50. Detected Compounds 

5 1 . Detected Compounds 

52. Detected Compounds 

53. Detected Compounds 

54. Detected Compounds 

55. Detected Compounds 

56. Detected Compounds 

57. Detected Compounds 

58. Detected Compounds 

59. Detected Compounds 

60. Detected Compounds 

61. Detected Compounds 

62. Detected Compounds 

63. Detected Compounds 

64. Detected Compounds 

65. Detected Compounds 



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background groundwater with data grouped by depth 

77. Frequency of Detection in Background Sediment and Surface Water Samples 

78. Surface Water Data for All Areas Excluding Background 

79. Sediment Data for All Areas Excluding Background 

80. Storm Water Data for All Areas Excluding Background 

8 1 . Statistical comparison of field parameter results for all results and background 
groundwater with data grouped by depth 

Plates (Volume 1) 

1 Concentrations of Explosives in Groundwater Samples 

2 Concentrations of Volatiles in Groundwater Samples 

3 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Groundwater Samples 

4 Concentrations of Pesticides and Herbicides in Groundwater Samples 

5 Concentrations of Metals and Inorganics in Groundwater Samples, Map 1 

6 Concentrations of Metals and Inorganics in Groundwater Samples, Map 2 

7 Concentrations of Metals and Inorganics in Groundwater Samples, Map 3 

Figures (Volume 2) 

A MMR Sampling Sites 

B Plume Source Area Map (AFCEE, March 1998) 

C Thickness of Topset Beds in the IAGS 

D Thickness of Foreset Beds in the IAGS 

E Thickness of Bottomset Beds in the IAGS 

F Thickness of Till in the IAGS 

G Contour Surface of Till in the IAGS 

H Contour Surface of Bedrock in the IAGS 

I Geologic Cross Section A- A' MMR Impact Area 

J Geologic Cross Section B-B' MMR Impact Area 

K Geologic Cross Section C-C MMR Impact Area 

L Geophysical Resistivity Log for MW-10 

M Geophysical Conductivity Log for MW- 1 

N Groundwater Contour Map, June 27, 1997 

O Groundwater Contour Map, October, 3, 1997 

P Groundwater Contour Map, December 30, 1997 

Q Groundwater Contour Map, April 1, 1998 

R Hydrograph of AEHA- 1 1 

S Hydrograph of CS 1 9-M W0007E 

T Hydrograph of LRWS Site 2-02 

U Comparison of Ammonia with RDX/HMX & TNT/DNT by Depth 

V Cumulative Probability Plot for BEHP in Groundwater 

W Comparison of Original and Duplicate Samples for BEHP in Groundwater 



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X VOC Profile Results for Borings 1 and 2 

Y VOC Profile Results for Borings 3 and 5 

Z VOC Profile Results for Borings 7 and 1 

AA VOC Profile Results for Borings 13 and 1 5 

AB VOC Profile Results for Borings 1 6 and 1 7 

AC VOC Profile Results for Borings 1 8 and 1 9 

AD VOC Profile Results for Borings 2 1 and 23 

AE Tritium Profile for Groundwater at MW- 1 3 

AF Tritium Profile for Groundwater at MW- 1 7 

AG Zones of Contribution 

AH Forward and Reverse Particle Tracks for RDX and HMX Detections 

AI Comparison of RDX Detections by Depth 

AJ Projected Particle Pathlines and Estimated Travel Times from RDX Detection at MW19 

AK Degradation Pathway for TNT 

1-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 1 

1-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 1 

1-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 1 

1-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 1 

1-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 1 

2-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 2 

2-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 2 

2-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 2 

2-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 2 

2-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 2 

3-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 3 

3-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 3 

3-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 3 

3-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 3 

4-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 4 

4-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 4 

4-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 4 

4-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 4 

5A-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 5 A 

5A-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 5 A 

5A-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 5 A 

5A-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 5 A 

5A-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 5 A 

5B-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 5B 

5B-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 5B 

5B-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 5B 

6-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Areas 6/14 

6-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Areas 6/14 

6-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Areas 6/14 

6-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Areas 6/14 

6-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Areas 6/14 



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7-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 7 

7-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 7 

7-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 7 

7-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 7 

7-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 7 

8-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 8 

8-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 8 

8-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 8 

8-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 8 

9-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 9 

9-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 9 

9-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 9 

9-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 9 

10-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 10 

10-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 10 

10-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 10 

10-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 10 

1 1-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 1 1 

1 1-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 1 1 

1 1-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 1 1 

1 1-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 1 1 

12-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 12 

12-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 12 

12-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 12 

12-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 12 

12-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 12 

13-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 13 

13-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 13 

13-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 13 

13-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 13 

15-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 15 

15-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 15 

15-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 15 

16-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 16 

16-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 16 

16-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 16 

16-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 16 

16-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 16 

17-1 Concentrations of Explosives in Soil Samples Area 17 

17-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 17 

17-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 17 

17-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 17 

17-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 17 

18-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 18 

18-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Soil Samples Area 18 



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18-4 


Concentrations 


18-5 


Concentrations 


19-2 


Concentrations 


19-3 


Concentrations 


19-4 


Concentrations 


19-5 


Concentrations 


8-2b 


Concentrations 


8-3b 


Concentrations 


8-4b 


Concentrations 


8-5b 


Concentrations 


23-1 


Concentrations 


23-2 


Concentrations 


23-3 


Concentrations 


23-4 


Concentrations 


23-5 


Concentrations 


25-2 


Concentrations 


25-3 


Concentrations 


25-4 


Concentrations 


25-5 


Concentrations 


26-2 


Concentrations 


26-3 


Concentrations 


26-4 


Concentrations 


26-5 


Concentrations 


27-2 


Concentrations 


27-3 


Concentrations 


27-4 


Concentrations 


27-5 


Concentrations 


28-2 


Concentrations 


28-3 


Concentrations 


28-4 


Concentrations 


28-5 


Concentrations 


29-2 


Concentrations 


29-3 


Concentrations 


29-4 


Concentrations 


29-5 


Concentrations 


30-2 


Concentrations 


30-3 


Concentrations 


30-5 


Concentrations 


31-2 


Concentrations 


31-3 


Concentrations 


31-5 


Concentrations 


32-2 


Concentrations 


32-3 


Concentrations 


32-4 


Concentrations 


32-5 


Concentrations 



of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 18 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 18 

of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Areas 19-22 

of Volatiles in Soil Samples Areas 19-22 

of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Areas 19-22 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Areas 19-22 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 8 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 8 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 8 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 

of Explosives in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 23 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 23 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 23 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 23 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 23 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 25 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 25 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 25 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 25 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 26 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 26 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 26 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 26 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 27 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 27 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 27 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 27 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 28 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 28 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 28 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 28 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 29 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 29 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 29 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 29 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 30 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 30 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 30 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 3 i 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 31 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 3 1 

of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 32 

of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 32 

of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 32 

of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 32 



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33-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 33 

33-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 33 

33-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 33 

33-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 33 

34-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 34 

34-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 34 

34-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 34 

34-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 34 

35-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 35 

35-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 35 

35-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 35 

36-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 36 

36-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 36 

36-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 36 

36-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 36 

37-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 37 

37-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 37 

37-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 37 

37-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 37 

39-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 39 

39-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 39 

40-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 40 

40-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 40 

40-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 40 

41-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 41 

41-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 41 

41-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 41 

41-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 41 

42-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Soil Samples Area 42 

42-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Soil Samples Area 42 

42-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Soil Samples Area 42 

43-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 43 

43-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 43 

43-4 Concentrations of Semivolatiles in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 43 

43-5 Concentrations of Pesticides/Herbicides in Surface Water/Sediment Samples Area 43 

ST-2 Concentrations of Metals/Inorganics in Storm Water Samples 

ST-3 Concentrations of Volatiles in Storm Water Samples 






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Draft Completion of Work Report 



Appendices 




A Photographs of Sampling Locations 


(Volume 3) 


B Field Logs 


(Volume 3) 


C Tables of Validated Data 


(Volume 4) 


D Data Quality Assessment 


(Volume 4) 


E Correlation of Nitrogen and TNT/DNT 


(Volume 5) 


F Background Evaluation 


(Volume 5) 



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Pr Wr. BE 61 »" BMHHHHH ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 



LIST OF ACRONYMS 

1,1,1-TCA - 1,1,1-trichloroethane 

2,4-DANT - 2,4-diamino-4-nitrotoluene 

2,4-DNT - 2,4-dinitrotoluene 

2,6-DANT - 2,6-diamino-6-nitrotoluene 

2,6-DNT - 2,6-dinitrotoluene 

2A-DNT - 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene 

2-NT - 2-nitrotoluene 

4,4'-DDD - l,l-bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene 

4,4'-DDE - 1 , 1 -bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane 

4,4'-DDT - 1 , 1 -bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane 

4A-DNT - 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene 

AFCEE - Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence 

AP - ammonium picrate 

BDCM - bromodichloromethane 

BEHP - bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 

bgs - below ground surface 

BHC - hexachlorocyclohexane 

BTEX - benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes 

BWT - below water table 

COC - contaminant of concern 

CRREL - Army Corps Cold Regions Research Engineering Laboratory 

CS - chemical spill 

DBCM - dibromochloromethane 

DNT - dinitrotoluene 

DO - dissolved oxygen 

DoDAC - Department of Defense Activity Code 

EDB - ethylene dibromide 

EOD - Explosive Ordnance Disposal 

EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1 

FID - flame ionization detector 

FS - fuel spill 

FSP - Field Sampling Plan 

GPS - global positioning system 

HA - health advisory 

HE - high explosive 

HEAT - high explosive anti-tank 

HMX - octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine 

HPLC - high performance liquid chromatography 

IAGS - Impact Area Groundwater Study 



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H 



IRP - Installation Restoration Program 

Kd - partitioning coefficient 

LRWS - Long Range Water Supply 

MADEP - Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection 

MCL - maximum contaminant level 

MCPA - 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid 

MCPP - 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 

MEK - methyl ethyl ketone 

MIDAS - Munitions Items Disposition Action System 

MMR - Massachusetts Military Reservation 

MTBE - tert-butyl methyl ether 

NGB - National Guard Bureau 

nm - nanometer 

NTU - nephlometric turbidity units 

Ogden - Ogden Environmental and Energy Services 

ORP - oxidation/reduction potential 

PA - picric acid 

PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 

PCE - tetrachloroethene 

PCP - pentachlorophenol 

PDA - photo-diode array 

PETN - pentaerythritol tetranitrate 

PVC - poly vinyl chloride 

QA/QC - Quality Assurance/Quality Control 

RDX - hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine 

SMB - Senior Management Board 

SMCL - secondary maximum contaminant level 

SOP - Standard Operating Procedure 

SVOC - semi-volatile organic compound 

TCE - trichloroethylene 

TNT - 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene 

TOC - total organic carbon 

US Army - United States Department of the Army 

USCG - United States Coast Guard 

USGS - United States Geological Survey 

UTL - upper tolerance limit 

UXO - unexploded ordnance 

VOC - volatile organic compound 



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Executive Summary (to be provided) 



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Draft Completion of Work Report 



1.0 Introduction 

1.1 Purpose 

The purpose of the Completion of Work Report is to summarize activities and results for 
the Impact Area Groundwater Study (IAGS). This report was prepared using validated 
data for approximately 100 percent of the samples described in the Final Action Plan 
(ETA, 1997) and subsequent addenda such as Field Sampling Plans (FSPs). 

1.2 Report Organization 

The Completion of Work Report is presented in five volumes. Volume 1 contains written 
descriptions of the procedures, results, and conclusions, including summary data tables. 
Volume 1 also contains plates showing detected concentrations of contaminants in 
groundwater. Volume 2 contains figures supporting the text and tables in Volume 1 . 
Volume 3 contains photographs (Appendix A) and field logs (Appendix B). Volume 4 
contains a complete copy of the validated laboratory data (Appendix C). These data are 
also available to the regulatory agencies and stakeholders on a CD-ROM, in a database 
that is in the ERPIMS format specified by the Air Force Center for Environmental 
Excellence (AFCEE). Volume 4 also contains a Data Quality Assessment (Appendix D) 
providing measurements of Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) 
information. Volume 5 contains information regarding data correlations (Appendix E) 
and evaluations of background data (Appendix F). 

1.3 Project History 

The scope of investigations under the IAGS has expanded significantly since the Final 
Action Plan (ETA, 1997) was prepared in July 1997. The number of wells to be installed 
has increased from 52 to 60, not including nine wells currently being installed. The 
number of wells to be sampled has increased from 81 to 122. The soil sampling areas 
have generally remained as originally envisioned, with adjustments to the numbers of 
samples based on sizes of the focal areas. The number of pond, swamp, and drainage 
swale sampling areas has increased from 15 to 19. The target analytes have been 
expanded to include boron and molybdenum in the metals (IM40) analysis, and 
nitroglycerin in the explosive (8330) analysis. 

This subsection provides a brief project history summarized from the Monthly Progress 
Reports. The locations of sampling areas and monitoring wells referenced below are 
provided in Figure A. 



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1.3.1 March 1997 

The effective date of the EPA Region I Administrative Order SDWA 1-97-1019 ("the 
Order") is March 6, 1997. The National Guard Bureau (NGB) met with EPA, MADEP, 
and stakeholders on March 7 to discuss comments on the "Draft Action Plan for the 
Camp Edwards Impact Area Groundwater Quality Study" dated December 1996, and to 
offer an approach to revising the plan. On March 14 NGB provided EPA and the public 
an accelerated schedule and work plan ("Draft Action Plan for the Camp Edwards Impact 
Area Groundwater Quality Study" dated March 1997). NGB presented information 
regarding the revised Draft Action Plan at the Senior Management Board (SMB) meeting 
of March 18, and introduced a panel of experts to answer questions regarding the plan. 
NGB also presented information regarding the revised Draft Action Plan at the EPA's 
public hearing on March 20. 

1.3.2 April 1997 

NGB requested a technical proposal from Ogden Environmental and Energy Services 
(Ogden) for performing the I AGS on April 4. Ogden met with AFCEE personnel to 
discuss issues related to coordinating the IAGS with the Installation Restoration Program 
(IRP) activities. Ogden prepared bid specifications for subcontractor activities based on 
the Draft Action Plan, and submitted these to prospective bidders during the period of 
April 3 to April 7. A site walk with prospective bidders was conducted on April 9. 
Ogden received bids for performing Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) surveys, drilling 
services, and laboratory services during the period of April 1 1 to April 16. NGB received 
EPA's comments on the Draft Action Plan on April 22. Ogden submitted a draft 
technical proposal for performing the activities described in the Draft Action Plan to 
NGB on April 25. 

1.3.3 May 1997 

NGB discussed the comments of EPA and other stakeholders at a May 1 meeting at 
EPA's Boston office. EPA, MADEP, Cape Cod Commission, and United States 
Geological Survey (USGS) attended this meeting. NGB issued a delivery order to Ogden 
to perform surveys for UXO and to complete other mobilization tasks on May 8. EPA 
provided additional comments on the Draft Action Plan in a letter to NGB dated May 8. 
NGB completed a Draft Final Action Plan for EPA and other stakeholders on May 1 7, 
including a response to comments on the March version of the plan. A meeting of the 
IAGS Review Team was convened on May 20. NGB conducted a tour of the Impact 
Area for the EPA and the public on May 22. NGB met with EPA at their Boston office 
on May 29 to discuss the sampling plans and archive search activities. NGB submitted a 
Draft Response Matrix to EPA on May 30. 



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1.3.4 June 1997 

Archive search interviews and file searches were initiated in June. Preliminary versions 
of the Range Use History and Chemical Composition of Munitions reports were provided 
to EPA on June 18. Meetings were held in June to discuss comments on the Draft Final 
Action Plan, including a meeting with the Review Team on June 9, and meetings with 
EPA, MADEP, and other stakeholders on June 18 and June 26 at MADEP's Southeast 
Region Office. Significant changes to the plan were discussed including additional 
analysis and modified sampling protocols for surface and shallow subsurface soils, 
additional monitoring wells and modification of monitoring well and well nest positions, 
and addition of volatile organic compound (VOC) screening in the saturated zone. 
Weekly progress updates for the I AGS were initiated on June 13. 

Ogden, CMS Environmental (the UXO contractor), and T.F. Moran (the UXO 
contractor's surveyor) mobilized to the site on June 9. Survey control points were located 
on June 10-13. UXO avoidance was conducted from June 10 to June 24. During this 
time it became apparent that too many magnetic anomalies were present for effective 
avoidance in most areas. The magnetic anomalies were generally observed to be the 
result of metal fragments from exploded ordnance. Ogden's contract with CMS 
Environmental was modified and on June 25 field crews switched to UXO removal to a 
depth of two feet for most areas. Immovable UXO was identified to the 102 nd Fighter 
Wing Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) detachment for detonation in place. A 
synoptic round of water level measurements at existing wells was conducted on June 27. 

1.3.5 July 1997 

The text of the Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997) was provided to EPA, MADEP, and other 
stakeholders during a meeting of the Review Team on July 10. The meeting was 
preceded by a tour of the Impact Area, Moving Target Range, NBC Site, and J-3 Range. 
Four of the FSPs that are referenced in the Action Plan were also provided at this 
meeting. The Draft Response Matrix (Ogden, 1997d) was updated to reflect the most 
recent changes to the Final Action Plan, and was provided at the July 10 meeting. NGB 
submitted the Draft Human Health Risk Assessment Work Plan Ogden, 1997e) to EPA 
for review on July 1 1 . NGB received comments from EPA concerning the Draft FSPs on 
July 15. NGB submitted the Draft Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1997a) and the 
Draft Chemical Composition of Munitions Report (Ogden, 1 997b) to EPA for review on 
July 16. NGB submitted Final FSPs for Barber Rig (Ogden, 1997f) and Rotosonic Rig 
(Ogden, 1997g) drilling investigations on July 18. There was a public Open House to 
introduce NGB contractors for the IAGS to the public on July 24, 1997. Weekly 
technical meetings with EPA and MADEP continued during the month. 



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UXO surface clearance activities continued along roads and at drilling locations in the 
Impact Area, and downhole UXO clearance was completed at seven sites. D.L. Maher 
(the drilling subcontractor) and Valeri Construction (Maher's road building subcontractor) 
mobilized to the site on July 14. TRC (EPA's oversight contractor) and the USGS were 
present for oversight of drilling activities. Three shallow wells and one deep well were 
completed in July. UXO present at Spruce Swamp Road, Pocasset-Sandwich Road, and 
drilling locations MW-1, MW-6, and MW-27 were destroyed by the 102 nd Fighter Wing 
EOD detachment on July 25. Continuous water level recording devices were installed in 
three wells. Soil sampling was performed at borings 7, 14, 23, 28, and 29 during the 
month. Groundwater profiling was performed at deep boring 23. 

1.3.6 August 1997 

NGB submitted final FSPs for Areas 2 (Ogden, 19971) and 3 (Ogden, 1997J) on August 6, 
and draft FSPs for Areas 1 and 6,7,8 on August 1 1, for Area 4 on August 15, and for 
Areas 9,10,1 1,14 on August 19. EPA convened a meeting of the Review Team on 
August 6 to obtain comments on the Draft Response Matrix and the Draft Risk 
Assessment Work Plan. NGB provided an update on the IAGS results at the August 6 
meeting of the SMB. NGB provided the Draft Report on Fate and Transport of 
Munitions to EPA on August 15. Weekly technical meetings with EPA and MADEP 
continued during the month. 

UXO surveys and removal continued during the month. Surface clearance was completed 
at all drilling locations, and downhole clearance was completed at most of the locations. 
Seven shallow wells and three deep wells were completed in August. Soil sampling was 
performed at borings 1,4, 10-12, and 15-17 during the month. Groundwater profiling 
was performed at deep borings 1,7, 10, 17, and 18. Surface samples were collected from 
the 0-6 inch depth interval at borings 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, and 25-27. 

1.3.7 September 1997 

NGB submitted final FSPs for Areas 6,7,8 (Ogden 19971) and 9,10,1 1,14 (Ogden, 
1997m), and draft FSPs for Areas 12,13, 15, Background, Groundwater, and the Gun & 
Mortar positions, during September. EPA convened a meeting of the Review Team on 
September 29 to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical meetings with EPA 
and MADEP continued during the month. 

The UXO Contractor continued work on site during the first week of September, 
demobilizing from the site on September 5. The UXO discovered since July were 
destroyed on September 12. Eight shallow wells, one intermediate well, and four deep 
wells were completed in September. Soil sampling was performed at borings 6, 9, 15, 20, 



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I I i i i H 



22, and 25 during the month. Groundwater profiling was performed at deep borings 1, 6, 
9, 15, 18, 21, and 25. Hand auger samples were collected from the 0-6 inch depth 
interval from Areas 2, 3, 9, 10, and 14. 

1.3.8 October 1997 

NGB submitted a draft FSP for Area 5, and final FSPs for Areas 1 (Ogden, 1997h), 4 
(Ogden, 1997k), 15 (Ogden, 1997o), Background (Ogden, 1997p), and Groundwater 
(Ogden, 1997q) during October. EPA convened a meeting of the Review Team on 
October 23 to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical meetings with EPA and 
MADEP continued during the month. 

A synoptic round of water level measurements was collected on October 3. CMS 
Environmental remobilized to the site on October 14. Downhole UXO clearance was 
performed at three drilling locations. Five shallow wells, four intermediate wells, and 
two deep wells were completed during the month. Soil sampling was performed at 
borings 2, 8, 16, 27, and 30 during the month. Groundwater profiling was performed at 
deep borings 2 and 16. Hand auger samples were collected from the 0-6 inch depth 
interval from Areas 3, 4, 6-8, 11, 13, 15, and 20-22. Groundwater samples were collected 
from wells IS, 1M, ID, 8S, 9S, 15S, 15D, 18S, 18D, 21S, 21D, 23S, 23D, 25S, Long 
Range Water Supply (LRWS) wells, Bourne wells, and CS-19 wells during October. 
Explosives were detected in groundwater samples from monitoring wells IS, 1M, 25S, 
and CS-19 wells 58MW001 IE, 58MW0006E, and 58MW0009E. 

1.3.9 November 1997 

NGB submitted draft FSPs for Storm Water and for Surface Water and Sediment, and a 
final FSP for Areas 12,13 (Ogden, 1997n) during the month. EPA convened a November 
20 meeting of the Review Team to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical 
meetings with EPA and MADEP continued during the month. 

Two shallow wells, four intermediate wells, and two deep wells were completed in 
November. Soil sampling and groundwater profiling were performed at borings 5 and 1 3 
during the month. Hand auger samples were collected from the 1 8-24 inch depth interval 
from Areas 1-3, 9, 10, 14, and 41. Groundwater samples were collected from wells 2D, 
4S,6S, 10S, 10D, US, 12S, 14S, 16S, 16D, 17S, 17D, 20S, 23M1, 23M2, 23M3, 24S, 
28S, and 29S during November. No new groundwater samples had explosive detections. 
At the end of November and in early December, field operations were shut down for 
approximately two weeks for the Thanksgiving holiday and to allow deer hunting on 
portions of Camp Edwards. 



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1.3.10 December 1997 

No new FSPs were completed during the month. EPA convened a December 16 meeting 
of the Review Team to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical meetings with 
EPA and MADEP continued during the month. 

UXO surveys were completed at the remaining soil sampling grids, storm water sampling 
locations, and at two pits excavated within Area 5 (J-l Range). Approximately 500 
rounds were removed from one of the pits. Downhole UXO clearance was performed at 
two locations and one intermediate well was completed during the month. Soil sampling 
was performed at background locations at the Four Ponds Conservation Area in Bourne. 
A synoptic round of water level measurements was collected on December 30 at wells in 
and around the Impact Area. 

1.3.11 January 1998 

NGB completed final FSPs for Area 5 (Ogden, 1998a) and Surface Water/Sediment 
(Ogden, 1998c) during January. EPA convened a January 28 meeting of the Review 
Team to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical meetings with EPA and 
MADEP continued during this time. 

One shallow well and two intermediate wells were completed during January. Soil 
sampling was performed on 10-foot intervals at borings 3 and 26. Hand auger samples 
were collected at 1 8-24 inches below ground surface (bgs) at these and several other soil 
borings; at 0-6 inches bgs at Areas 1, 4, 5, 12, 13, 16-18, and 20; and at 18-24 inches bgs 
at Areas 4 and 6. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from Areas 8, 23, 
25-32, 34-36, and 43. Groundwater samples were collected from background monitoring 
wells and from wells 1M1, 2M1, 2M2, 7M1, 13S, 13D, and 18M1. 

1.3.12 February 1998 

NGB completed a Final Storm Water FSP (Ogden, 1998d) and the Final Gun and Mortar 
Position FSP (Ogden, 1998b). The Interim Results Report (Ogden, 1998e) was submitted 
to EPA and MADEP for review. Weekly technical meetings with EPA and MADEP 
continued during the month. 

Two shallow and deep monitoring wells were completed during February. Soil profile 
and groundwater sampling was performed on 10-foot intervals at borings 3 and 19. Hand 
auger samples were collected at 18-24 inches bgs Areas 8, 11-13, 15, and 19-22. Surface 
water and sediment samples were collected from Areas 33, 37, 39, and 40. Groundwater 
samples were collected from wells 2S, 2M1, 2M2, 5S, 5M1, 5M2, 5D, 7M2, 26S, FS12- 



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90MW0080, LF1-BB703, CS1-15WT071 1, CS1-15WT0712, Bourne 95-14, RW-1, 
RW2, SD5-28MW0106, FS14-MW0003, and USFW228040. 

1.3.13 March 1998 

UXO surveys were completed at GP-16, GP-18, and in Area 4. Inventorying, excavation, 
and removal of UXO continued at the pit located at Grid O on the J-l Range (Area 5). 
All Final FSPs are complete at this time. EPA convened a March 2 and March 3 1 meeting 
of the Review Team to discuss progress on the project. Weekly technical meetings with 
EPA and MADEP continued during the month. 

Two intermediate wells were completed during March. Hand auger samples were 
collected at 0-6 inches bgs at Areas 16 and 18 and 18-24 inches bgs at Areas 1,4,5, 12, 
13, 16-18, and 20. Storm water samples were collected at locations 1 and 3-6 on March 
1 9 during a storm of greater than one inch. Storm water sampling locations 2, and 7-9 
did not receive storm water runoff during this event. Groundwater samples were 
collected from wells 3S, 3D, 3M1, 3M2, 19S, 19D, and CS19-58MW0002. 

1.3.14 April 1998 

A synoptic round of water level measurements was collected on April 1 . Hand auger 
samples were collected at remaining grids in Areas 12, 15, 16, and 18. EPA convened an 
April 30 meeting of the Review Team to discuss progress on the project. Weekly 
technical meetings with EPA and MADEP continued during the month, with review of 
soil and groundwater concentration maps. Proposed background concentrations for soils 
were proposed to EPA and MADEP. Validation of laboratory data continued during the 
month. 

1.3.15 May 1998 

A synoptic round of water level measurements was collected the week of May 1 1 in 
coordination with AFCEE, USGS, and the Cape Cod Commission to obtain a water table 
map for the entire Upper Cape. Weekly technical meetings with EPA and MADEP 
continued during the month, with review of soil and groundwater concentration maps. 
NGB met with EPA and MADEP on May 21 to discuss EPA's May 6 letter regarding 
scoping for Phase II. Validation of laboratory data and preparation of the Draft 
Completion of Work Report continued during the month. 

1.3.16 June 1998 

EPA convened a June 2 meeting of the Review Team to discuss progress on the project. 



Draft Completion of Work Report 



Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed in accordance with the response plan 
for FS12-90WT0013. Installation of additional wells was initiated in accordance with the 
immediate response plan for MW-19S. 

1.4 Current Status of Plans and Documents 

All final FSPs have been provided to EPA and MADEP. Documents that have not yet 
been finalized include: 

• The archive search reports on Range Use, Chemical Composition, and Fate and 
Transport (Ogden 1997a, 1997b and 1997c). These draft reports were submitted in 
July and August 1997. EPA commented on the Range Use report on May 6, 1998. 
MADEP commented on all three documents on September 11, 1997. 

• The Response Matrix (Ogden, 1997d). This document was last updated in July 1997. 
Comments regarding timing of notification remain to be resolved. 

• The Human Health Risk Assessment Work Plan (Ogden 1997e). This draft report 
was submitted in July 1997. NGB awaits comments from EPA on this document. 
MADEP commented on the plan September 11, 1997. 



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2. Background 

2.1 Site Description 

The Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) is a 2 1 ,000-acre facility located in 
western Cape Cod. MMR includes four functional areas: a Cantonment Area in the 
southeast, which includes Otis Air Force Base; Veterans National Cemetery in the 
southwest; the Training Range and Impact Area covering most of the remaining area; and 
Cape Cod Air Force Station in the northeast. The Training Range and Impact Area is 
currently operated by the Army National Guard, and is the focus of the I AGS. 

2.2 Site History 

Military use of MMR dates back to 1911 (Ogden, 1 997a). The Training Range and 
Impact Area consists of approximately 14,000 acres. The Impact Area, covering 
approximately 2,000 acres, contains targets at which artillery and mortars are fired during 
training activities. Numerous firing ranges, artillery and mortar positions, and training 
areas surround the Impact Area. For over 50 years, the Training Range and Impact Area 
have received ordnance discharged from small arms, guns, hand grenades, artillery, 
mortar, and ordnance demolition. The U.S. Army operated the area until about 1974, 
when it was turned over to the Army National Guard. A brief history of the use of this 
area was prepared prior to the start of field investigations, and is provided in the draft 
Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1997a). 

2.3 Investigations Under the IRP 

AFCEE has investigated portions of MMR under the IRP. These include several areas in 
and around the locations studied under the I AGS. The relevant results of the IRP 
investigations are summarized below. Areas of investigation under the IRP are indicated 
in Figure B. 

2. 3. 1 Chemical Spill 1 (CS-1) 

The IRP conducted an investigation of the CS-1 area at the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) 
transmitter station (Hazwrap, 1995). The USCG is located east of the Impact Area and 
Training Ranges. Waste solvents (30 gallons per year) and transformer oil (15 to 30 
gallons) were reportedly disposed of on the ground to the southeast of the transmitter 
building. The remedial investigation for this site found elevated fuel-related PAHs, 
phthalates, and several metals, namely arsenic and lead (HAZWRAP, 1995). Fuel-related 
VOCs were detected at trace levels in soils, however chlorinated solvents were not 
detected. Low-levels of fuel-related VOCs and chlorinated solvents (chloroform, 



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trichloroethene [TCE], and 1 , 1 , 1 -trichloroethane [1,1,1-TCA]) were detected in 
groundwater. Human health and ecological risks due to site related contaminants were 
not considered to be at levels of concern. The monitoring wells 15WT071 1 and 
15WT0712 were sampled as part of the IAGS. Neither well was sampled as part of the 
Hazwrap (1995) Remedial Investigation. 

2. 3. 2 Chemical Spill 1 (CS-10) 

The CS-10 area is located to the south east of the IAGS and west of Snake Pond. An RI 
was conducted in 1995 to assess the impacts to groundwater from BOMARC operational 
and maintenance activities (CDM, 1995). Groundwater flow in the area of the BOMARC 
structures is to the south. The study found surface soils to be contaminated with VOCs, 
SVOCs, pesticides, herbicides, metals, and PCBs. Only VOCs are present in 
groundwater. The area of contamination extends to the south and away from the Impact 
Area. The CS-10 wells sampled as part of the IAGS include 03MW0122A, 
03MW0604A, and 03MW0060. The latter two wells were designated as background 
wells for the IAGS. 



2. 3. 3 Chemical Spill 18 (CS-18) 

A study was conducted of the gun position GP-9 to assess the impact from propellant bag 
burning activities (CHPMM, 1994). A total of 64 soil samples were collected from the 
GP-9 area, which is located to the northwest of the intersection of Turpentine and Howe 
Road. The study found low levels of 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, N-nitrosodiphenylamine, and 
di-n-butylphthalate to be present in the upper one foot of soil. These compounds are 
indicative of bag burning activities (CHPMM, 1994). The study also found possibly 
elevated levels of arsenic, chromium, and lead to be present in the surface soil. One 
groundwater well, 16MW0002, was located downgradient of the location where the soil 
sample results indicated residuals from propellant bag burning activities. A sample from 
this well did not contain measurable levels of SVOCs or explosives, which is consistent 
with known fate-and-transport properties of 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, N-nitrosodiphenylamine 
and di-n-butylphthalate. The CHPMM (1994a) study found no current or future human 
health or ecological risk under current land use. 



2. 3. 4 Chemical Spill 19 (CS-19) 

The CS-19 area was historically used as an ordnance disposal site (Jacobs Eng. 1997). 
Several previous studies have been conducted in this area (ABB, 1992a; ABB, 1992b; 
CHPPM, 1994b; and Jacobs Eng. 1997). Explosives, SVOCs, pesticides, herbicides, 



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dioxins, and furans were detected in shallow soil samples, to 3 feet (Jacobs Eng. 1997). 
HMX was the explosive compound detected in surface soil from test pits with a 
maximum estimated concentration of 2713 ug/kg. Compounds detected in groundwater 
include RDX, acetone, chromium, and manganese. Iron, sodium, methylene chloride, 
and BEHP were eliminated as contaminants of concern (COCs) either due to laboratory 
method blank contamination, field method blank contamination, or lack of toxicity. As 
will be discussed later in Section 4 the results from Jacobs Eng. (1997) are in general 
agreement with the results of the current IAGS. The following wells in the CS-19 area 
were sampled as part of the IAGS: 58MW0002, 58MW0005E, 58MW0006E, 
58MW0007C, 58MW0007E, 58MW0009E, 58MW0010A, and 58MW001 IE. 

2.3.5 Fuel Spill 12 (FS- 12) 

FS-12 is located to the south and east of the IAGS starting just north of the J-3 Wetland 
and extending south to Snake Pond. The FS-12 area consists of an approximately 2,000- 
gallon jet fuel leak (JP-4) from an underground, three-inch diameter pipeline (Advanced 
Sciences, 1995). The source area lies at the intersection of Greenway Road and the 
western entrance to the L-range. As a consequence fuel-related contaminants (benzene, 
toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes [BTEX] and ethylene dibromide [EDB]) are present in 
soil and groundwater from this area including free product. Groundwater flow in this 
area is to the south, away from the Impact Area. The groundwater plume is 
approximately 4000 feet long and extends to the east of Snake Pond. Groundwater flow 
velocities estimated from the length of the plume and known release date yield a range of 
300 to 500 feet/yr. An air sparging system has been subsequently installed in the 
groundwater plume to remediate the VOCs. Several wells in the FS-12 area were 
sampled for explosives in 1993, including 90WT0002, 90WT0003, 90WT0004, 
90MW0013, 90MW0021, and 90MW0023. Tetryl was detected at 0.27 ug/1 in the 
sample from 90WT0003. The FS-12 wells sampled as part of the IAGS include; 
90MW0003, 90MW0022, 90MW0034, 90MW0041, 90MW0051, 90MW0054, 
90MW0070, 90MW0071, 90MW0080, 90WT0003, 90WT0004, 90WT0005, 90WT0006, 
90WT0008, 90WT0010, and 90WT0013. 

2.3.6 Fuel Spill 14 (FS-14) 

The FS-14 area is located on the northern portion of the Impact Area, on the east side of 
Demo Area 2. It was the site of a 500-gallon gasoline spill in 1985. Soil in the area of 
the release was excavated to a depth of 17 ft. A Phase I soil gas survey was initially 
conducted but later found to have been performed in the wrong location (E. C. Jordan, 
1986). The results from a Phase II study at FS-14 indicated no significant contamination 
of surface or subsurface soils and groundwater (ANEPTEK, 1996). Trace levels of 
phenol were found at one location and 4,4' -DDE was found at each location in surface 



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soil samples. Toluene was detected in all well samples at concentrations less than 25 
ug/L. Monitoring well MW0003 was sampled during the IAGS. 



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3. Investigation Procedures 

3.1 Archive Searches 

Background data were collected in accordance with the Final Action Plan to help focus 
field investigations on the likely sources, types, and distribution of contaminants. The 
data were collected from personnel interviews, examination of archives at the installation, 
and review of the applicable literature. Results of these searches were presented in the 
Draft Range Use History Report (Ogden 1 997a), the Draft Chemical Composition of 
Munitions Report (Ogden 1997b), and the Draft Report on Fate and Transport of 
Munitions-Related Materials (Ogden 1997c). Investigation procedures to prepare these 
documents are summarized below. 

3.1.1 Range Use History 

The records search consisted of the identification of the sources of data through a review 
of reports, databases, personnel interviews, and internal files of the Massachusetts Army 
National Guard (MAARNG). All these sources were searched for information relating to 
the development and historical use of the ranges in the context of the practices that may 
affect the environment. The information gathered was reviewed in an effort to 
reconstruct the development of each range, its use pattern over the years, and the possible 
environmental consequences. Primary sources of information for this review were 
historical range rule and range regulation reports, the standard operating procedures 
(SOPs) for the ranges, personnel interviews, and the U. S. Department of the Army (US 
Army) reports and training manuals relative to the manufacture, use and handling 
practices over the years. 

Air Space Utilization reports are among the information that was used to prepare the 
Range Use History Report. These records consist of a daily log of range activities, 
including the amounts of munitions fired from each range. Summaries of these reports 
were prepared for the period from 1993 to 1996 and were used in the preparation of this 
document. These reports are also available for the period from 1987 to 1992. Prior to 
1 987, little information is available on the specific quantities of munitions used in the 
Training Ranges. Under the US Army's record keeping system, there is a requirement to 
maintain such records for only one year. 

3.1.2 Chemical Composition of Munitions 

Available sources of information on the types of munitions used in weapons fired at 
MMR and the structural and chemical composition of these munitions included: 



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• MMR munitions use records, 

• MMR range manuals, 

• technical and field manuals on the use of military explosives and demolition, 

• conversations with personnel familiar with training operations and exercises 
conducted at MMR, and 

• conversations with personnel familiar with military weapons and munitions. 

Because a comprehensive list of the types and quantities of munitions used in the Impact 
Area throughout its history is not available, the munitions utilization reports from 1 989 
and 1 994 through 1 996 were used to generate a list of munitions used in recent years 
within the Impact Area. Additions to the list were compiled through the review of life 
cycle reports and technical manuals provided by the Ammunition Supply Point. Other 
sources of information included the review of training range SOPs, an MMR training 
range facilities report, range safety regulations, and range use histories (provided in the 
Range Use History Report [Ogden, 1997a]). The munitions summary list was further 
supplemented with information gather from discussions with personnel at the Unified 
Environmental Planning Office, the MMR range control office, the US Army Office of 
the Brigadier General, Picatinny Arsenal, the US Army Waterways Experiment Station 
(WES), and the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). 

The information collected is focused on munitions that are generally currently in use by 
the military. A variety of weapons, and their associated munitions, which have been used 
at MMR in the past are not in current use. In order to ascertain how representative the 
chemical content of these munitions is to historically employed munitions, a number of 
phone calls were placed to Picatinny Arsenal. The engineers at Picatinny indicated that 
the composition of projectiles (i.e., bullets), explosives, primers, and casings are very 
likely to be stable over the last several decades (Ogden, 1997b [Appendix B]). For 
example, bullets for a variety of weapons are composed of similar materials and those 
materials have been used for many years. There have been changes in the composition of 
projectiles in recent years in an attempt to achieve better penetrating capability. Such 
new munitions are not likely to be used on a training range due to their high cost. The 
quality of propellants has changed over the years as different manufacturers use different 
mixtures and as the US Army has required greater range out of its munitions. Similarly, 
the composition of incendiary, light-, and smoke-generating materials have changed and 
continue to evolve. The exception to this is the use of white and red phosphorous which 
has been common for many years. 

There is little information available on the dates of manufacture for munitions. 
According to the training manual on military explosives prepared by the US Army 
Environmental Center (USAEC) technical information center, the technology of 



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m 



explosives has constantly evolved over the last few centuries. Prior to World War I, the 
manufacture of TNT was a formalized process. However, since then it has become a 
controlled, highly guarded manufacturing process. Little documentation is thus available 
on the dates of manufacture and formulations used in recent years. A search of the US 
Army Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) database, the US Army 
Technical Information Center of Aberdeen Proving Ground, US Army technical manuals, 
and discussions with several knowledgeable military personnel did not provide 
substantive information. 

The primary source of information on the composition of munitions identified during the 
search was provided in the MIDAS database. The MIDAS database was created by the 
US Army Defense Ammunition Center and School and tracks munitions by the 
Department of Defense Activity Code (DODAC) designations for each type. The 
database includes chemical composition of the various components (e.g. propellant, 
casing, projectile, and primer) for each munition. The MIDAS data sheets include 
general information on the construction of each munition, but detailed construction and 
use specification information was complied from several US Army Ammunition Data 
Sheets to supplement the MIDAS information. 

Though the MIDAS database is the most complete source of information on munitions, it 
does not contain comprehensive information on the chemical composition of 
pyrotechnics (munitions that display light, smoke, or noise). General information on 
pyrotechnic munitions was gathered from WES and CRREL. 

3. 1. 3 Fate and Transport 

This report was prepared to provide a general understanding of the fate and transport of 
munitions-related compounds in the soil and groundwater environment, to assist in the 
interpretation of water quality information collected during the I AGS. The compounds 
discussed include explosive materials and their degradation products as well as inorganic 
materials associated with munitions (e.g., metals in casings, bullets, and primer 
materials). The scope of this effort consisted of a literature review of the theoretical and 
applied research relative to the fate and transport of munitions-related compounds, a 
review of relevant studies at MMR, and a summary of case studies at other sites where 
munitions were used. Information on uptake, receptors, and environmental risk posed by 
munition-related compounds was not within the scope of this report. 

Contaminant fate and transport is affected by a number of factors, many of which vary 
significantly with site conditions. Most obvious among these factors are the physical, 
chemical, and biological properties of the materials themselves. This includes the water 
solubility, affinity for the soil solid phase, vapor pressure, and the susceptibility to 



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biological and/or abiotic degradation. Many of these properties are strongly affected by 
site-specific biogeochemical conditions such as oxidation-reduction status, the nature of 
the solid phase, and chemical species which affects degradation rates. The other 
important class of site-specific conditions relates to the hydrogeological configuration of 
the site (e.g., groundwater velocity, depth to water table, rate of infiltration) which affects 
the residence time of constituents in the various portions of the site. Finally, contaminant 
fate and transport is affected by the means of release to the environment. A persistent 
source (e.g., an ongoing fuel release or sewage infiltration beds) would be expected to 
behave differently than a diffuse source present in surface soils. This report provides 
perspective on all of these issues as they relate to the fate and transport of munitions- 
related materials at MMR. 

This document was intended to provide a summary of available information on the fate of 
munitions-related materials. For example, literature observations of the persistence of 
explosives are summarized along with relevant analysis of contaminant hydrogeology 
performed under the IRP. This document presents preliminary conceptual models of the 
site-specific fate and transport of these materials. These preliminary models will be 
refined as data on the distribution of the munitions-related materials and hydrogeology of 
the Impact Area and its environs become available. 

3.2 UXO Surveys 

UXO clearance was performed in areas in and around the Impact Area where live 
ammunition may have been fired or disposed. Two types of UXO clearance were 
performed: surface clearance and intrusive clearance. During surface clearance an area 
was scanned visually and with a magnetometer. Visually identified UXO were identified 
with flagging, as were any magnetic anomalies detected by the magnetometer. The 
magnetic anomalies could have been associated with anything metallic: UXO, fragment 
from exploded ordnance (frag), or any other metal material. Magnetometer clearance 
generally identifies magnetic anomalies to two feet bgs. This type of clearance was used 
in areas to be traveled by foot, to allow avoidance of potential UXO during sampling. 
Intrusive clearance was performed in areas traveled by heavy equipment. Intrusive 
clearance was performed following surface clearance by excavating any magnetic 
anomaly up to two feet deep. During both of these clearance techniques, live (containing 
high explosive or HE) and inert (training) rounds were identified. 

Table 1 summarizes the areas intrusively cleared for UXO and the type of rounds 
identified during clearance. The most common rounds identified were 155-mm 
projectile, 105-mm projectile, 105-mm projectile High Explosives Anti-Tank (HEAT), 
81 -mm mortar, and 60-mm mortar. In addition to these rounds, 105-mm projectile White 
Phosphorous, 81 -mm projectile illumination, 60-mm spotting, 40-mm M918 training, 30- 



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mm projectile HE, 4.5-inch Hedge Hog rocket HE, 4.2-inch mortar illumination, 3.5-inch 
rocket, 2.25-inch rocket, and 2-inch mortar HE rockets were identified. There were no 
magnetic anomalies remaining in these areas after clearance to approximately 2 feet. A 
portion of Area 2 was intrusively cleared to a depth of 2-10 feet bgs due to a high density 
of inert rockets with deeper penetration. A portion of Area 5 containing buried munitions 
was intrusively cleared to approximately 1 5 feet bgs. 

The total area that was intrusively cleared of UXO is 1.3 million square feet, or 
approximately 3 1 acres. This area includes all new and existing roads and well sites in 
the Impact Area. The total number of live UXO identified in the intrusively cleared 
areas, not including the buried munitions in Area 5, was 41 rounds. Based on the surface 
area cleared, this is a live UXO density of 1.3 rounds per acre. 

Table 2 summarizes the areas that were surface cleared and flagged for UXO avoidance. 
No conclusions can be drawn regarding live UXO density in these areas. 

Additional UXO clearance activities included downhole clearance at each 
boring/monitoring well location in the Impact Area and clearance of surface water and 
sediment sampling locations. Downhole clearance was done vertically for the first 10 
feet of a borehole to ensure that no UXO were located up to 12 feet bgs. No anomalies 
were detected below two feet during downhole clearance. Clearance of surface water and 
sediment sampling locations was done on all ponds and swamps in the Training Range 
and Impact Area. Points at these locations were surficially cleared with magnetometers. 
These additional clearance activities were sample points and did not encompass any 
significant surface area, therefore they were not included in density calculations. 

3.3 Surface Soil Sampling (Focal Areas) 

Surface soil sampling was conducted within focal areas. Focal areas were defined either 
as areas of historical activity, control areas, or background areas. Areas of historical 
activity were determined by review of aerial photographs, interviews, and historical 
documentation. The focal areas were presumed to be the most affected by historical 
activity on-site. In order to confirm the selection criteria used for focal areas, randomly 
selected control areas were also selected for sampling. Control areas within the Impact 
Area were selected where no evidence of previous activity existed. Sampling results of 
focal areas were expected to contain compounds associated with training activities, while 
samples collected from control areas were not expected to contain compounds associated 
with training activities. This process attempts to focus the surface soil investigation in 
selected areas rather than sampling the whole Impact Area. Background soil sampling 
locations were located outside of MMR. These sampling locations were considered 
representative of background conditions in the vicinity of the Training Ranges and Impact 



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Area. 

Each area was assigned a numerical designation, as indicated in Figure A. Within each 
area, 30-foot by 30-foot sample grids were located in significant features. Photographs of 
each sample grid are presented in Appendix A. Each sample grid located within the 
Impact Area was non-intrusively cleared for UXO prior to sampling. Flags were used to 
mark magnetic anomalies identified within each grid. The soil sampling grid consisted of 
nine sample points spaced ten feet apart. Sample point locations may have been adjusted 
to avoid magnetic anomalies, or to collect a sample from a unique feature within a sample 
grid. If any unique features were sampled, this information was recorded on the boring 
log (see Appendix B). Surface soil samples were collected from two sample intervals at 
each grid location. Soil samples were collected from the 0-6 inch bgs interval and from 
the 1.5-2.0 feet bgs interval. The following protocol was used for collecting surface soil 
samples within each grid. 

1 . A 0-6 inch soil sample was collected from each of the nine sample points in a grid 
using a hand auger; 

• A portion of the soil sample from each sample point was placed in individual 
jars or plastic bags for headspace analysis using a flame ionization detector 
(FID); 

• the remaining soil from each of the nine sample points was composited in a 
stainless steel bowl with a stainless steel spoon in accordance with Section 8.1 
of the EPA Standard Guide; 

2. Headspace measurements were collected from each of the nine 0-6 inch samples and 
recorded on the hand auger sampling record; 

3. A VOC grab sample was collected from the one sample point within the grid using 
the following priority of characteristics: 

• highest response on the FID, or 

• visual signs of contamination, or 

• the central sample point within the grid. 

The VOC sample was then collected within one foot of the FID sample location. 

4. The 0-6 inch composite sample was submitted for the following analytes; 

Analyte Method 

VOC (except background locations) OLM03. 1 

SVOC OLM03.1 

Pesticide/PCB OLM03.1 

Herbicide 8151 

EDB/MTBE (except background locations) 8021 

Metals 6010 

Cyanide ILM04 



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Phosphate-phosphorous 365.2 

Nitrate/nitrite-nitrogen 353.2 

Ammonia-nitrogen 350.2 

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Lloyd Kahn 

Explosives Screen (except background locations) CRREL 

Explosives (if detected in screen) 8330 

5. When the analytical results for the grid sample from the 0-6 inch sample were 
available, sample crews returned to the grid location. An 1 8-24 inch sample was 
collected from the original 0-6 inch sample points at each grid. The sample was 
composited and screened with an FID by the same method used on 0-6 inch 
samples. 

6. An 18-24 inch sample was selected for VOC analysis based on the same screening 
criteria used for 0-6 inch samples. 

7. The 18-24 inch samples were analyzed as described above for explosives and 
inorganics. Any other analytes that were detected in the 0-6 inch sample were 
analyzed from the 18-24 inch sample. 



3. 3. 1 Radiological Surveys 

Radiological surveys were performed at Areas 4 and 5, along the J-l Range. These areas 
were described in archive search interviews as having potential for depleted uranium 
round testing and there was concern about the possibility of radioactively contaminated 
soil. At each of the 28 soil sampling grids in these areas, nine locations were surveyed 
(approximately one square foot each) for a total of 252 locations. One grid at a munitions 
pit was not available for survey because excavation operations were not complete. 

Radioactivity is the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable atom. There are three 
general forms of radiation: alpha, beta, and gamma. An alpha particle doesn't have 
enough energy to penetrate the skin and generally travels less than six inches from its 
source. The primary risk from alpha radiation is from internal exposure either through 
inhalation or ingestion versus external exposure. Beta radiation can be stopped by the 
presence of water and its primary risk is via inhalation or external exposure to the eyes. 
Gamma radiation is energetic and passes through the body and can cause cell damage. 
The radioactive decay of uranium-238, found in depleted uranium, produces alpha and 
gamma radiation. 

The equipment used for the survey included a Ludlum Model 12 counter with a 43-65 
probe for measuring alpha radiation. The counting efficiency for this instrument was 4 1 
percent using a thorium-232 source. A Ludlum Model 3 counter with a 44-9 probe was 



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used for beta/gamma measurements. The counting efficiencies for this instrument were 
33 percent for beta and 0.2 percent for gamma using a cesium-137 source. 

3.4 Soil Boring and Well Installation 

The Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997) stated that 52 wells would be installed. Initially 30 
locations were selected. During the investigation additional wells were added at several 
locations, bringing the total number of wells to 60. 

Three types of drill rigs were used to advance soil borings: a dual-rotary drill rig, sonic 
rig, and a hollow-stem auger rig. The Final Action Plan (§4.2.2.2 & §4.2.2.3) states that 
the Barber drill rig (dual rotary) was to be used inside the Impact Area and the Sonic drill 
rig was to be used outside the Impact Area. The dual rotary rig advances the borehole by 
simultaneously advancing drill rod and casing. A Sonic rig advances the borehole by 
vibrating casing down the borehole. A dual-rotary Barber Rig was initially used to 
advance all soil borings inside the Impact Area and Demo Areas due to concerns 
regarding the vibration generated by the Sonic rig. 

After a geophysical study was conducted to evaluate the potential for ground vibrations, 
the Sonic rig was used to advance boreholes inside the Impact Area and Demo Areas after 
a 1 00 foot pilot hole was drilled with the Barber rig. The Sonic rig was brought into 
these areas to increase production. The sampling methodology employed during borehole 
advancement is discussed below. 

During the drilling process, two types of drilling grease were used on the drill rods. Pure 
Gold grease contains bentonite clay, and Well Guard grease is a hydrocarbon-free, 
nonmetallic, vegetable and synthetic compound containing clay and silica. The Barber rig 
uses the grease on the threads of drill rod and the Sonic rig uses the grease on threads of 
casing. Samples of these greases were analyzed to determine whether organic 
components of the greases could interfere with analyses being conducted on the 
groundwater profile samples. Results are discussed in Section 4.4.1.1. A third grease 
was used for the hand tools. This material was MW Grease, a non-toxic hydrocarbon- 
free vegetable and silicon-based grease. 

3.4.1 Barber Rig 

The borings and wells completed in the Impact Area and buffer zone were primarily 
constructed by Barber Rig drilling as described in Section 4 of the Action Plan. The 
locations of these wells are presented on Figure A and include MW-1, MW-2, MW-3, 
MW-4, MW-5 (to 100 feet), MW-6, MW-7, MW-8, MW-9, MW-1 1, MW-1 2, MW-1 3 (to 
100 feet), MW-1 4, MW-1 5, MW-1 6 (to 100 feet), MW-1 9, MW-25, MW-26, MW-27, 



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MW-28, and MW-29. A Barber Rig also completed MW-30 located outside of the buffer 
zone and Impact Area. Depending on the location well nests (i.e., two to four screens) or 
single wells were installed. Additional wells were added at selected locations to provide 
additional water quality data and to provide samples for aquifer age dating by for the 
USGS. A total of four wells were installed at MW-1, MW-2, MW-3, MW-5 and MW-7. 

Prior to well installation, each site was intrusively cleared of UXO to a depth of two feet 
below grade. Additional down-hole clearance occurred to a depth of 1 feet bgs at each 
borehole location using a hollow-stem auger rig. Under this procedure, a down-hole 
magnetometer was lowered into the hole prior to advancing the auger in two-foot 
intervals. After completion of the next two-foot interval, a section of 4-inch diameter 
poly vinyl chloride (PVC) was inserted into the borehole and the rig was moved off of the 
hole prior to magnetic survey of the next interval. The boring location was considered 
clear when a depth of 10 feet was reached without encountering any magnetic anomalies. 

Barber rig borings were advanced using a 7-inch diameter drill bit and a 8-inch inside 
diameter steel casing. The drill bit was advanced slightly (1-2 inches) ahead of the 
casing. Air was circulated down the drill rod, out the drill bit and back up the casing to 
remove drill cuttings. In the event of heaving sands entering the casing, water was also 
used to wash out the drill cuttings. Drill rod and casing were attached in 20-foot 
increments. The drilling process was halted every 10 feet and a soil sample was 
collected. The soil sampling process is described in detail in Section 3.4. Below the 
water table a groundwater profiling sample was collected every 1 feet as described in 
Section 3.5. 

Below the groundwater table, groundwater profiling samples were collected every 10 
feet. Prior to sample collection, the drill rods and casing were purged with high-pressure 
(400-psi) air as described in Section 3.5. Groundwater samples were collected by 
lowering a stainless steel bailer down the inside of the drill rod. A check valve at the 
bottom of the drill rod allowed groundwater at the desired sample interval to infiltrate the 
drill rod. In some instances the check valve became jammed and the groundwater 
profiling sample was collected by lowering the bailer outside the drill rod (between the 
drill rod and the casing) to the bottom of the borehole. The heterogeneous nature of the 
aquifer prevented collection of groundwater profiling samples at several intervals. Fine- 
grained materials present in the unconsolidated materials limited groundwater flow. 
Generally profiling intervals were purged for 1 hour. If sufficient water was unavailable 
for collecting a profiling sample, the borehole was continued without sampling. 

Deep borings were completed to bedrock and then generally advanced 1 5 feet into 
bedrock to ensure bedrock was present. The procedure of coring 1 5 feet was instituted 
because initially there was some concern that a large boulder could be mistaken for 



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bedrock. Based on the drilling rate, exceptions to the 1 5 feet of bedrock coring were 
accepted by USGS and EPA. After consultation with USGS, borings at MW-1 (5 feet), 
MW-3 (1 1 feet), MW-7 (7 feet), MW-10 (13 feet) and MW-1 9 (6 feet) were advanced 
less than 1 5 feet into bedrock. 

3.4.2 Sonic Rig 

Outside of the Impact Area monitoring wells were generally completed using Rotosonic 
drilling technology. This technology allows for rapid completion of the well, continuous 
sampling of subsurface soils, and efficient sampling of groundwater. The locations for 
the wells are presented on Figure A and include MW-10, MW-1 7, MW-1 8, MW-20, 
MW-21, MW-22, and MW-23. In addition, three monitoring wells inside the Impact 
Area and Demo Area 2 were completed beyond 100 feet bgs by the Sonic rig. These 
wells included MW-5, MW-1 3 and MW-1 6. Depending on the location well nests (i.e., 
two to five screens) or single wells were installed. Additional wells were added at MW- 
18 (four wells) and MW-23 (five wells). 

Sonic boreholes were advanced by vibrating and hydraulically pushing 7-inch diameter 
drill rod downhole in 20-foot sections. The drill rod was removed and the cored 
overburden was extruded into 5 -foot long plastic sleeves. Seven-inch diameter casing 
was then advanced downhole in 20-foot sections. The soil core lithology was logged by 
an Ogden geologist and screened with a FID. Soil samples were collected per the 
protocol described in Section 3.3. Deep borings were generally advanced 15 feet from 
refusal to confirm bedrock. However, at MW-2 the boring was advanced 5 feet into rock 
before EPA and USGS granted an exception to the 15-foot protocol. 

Groundwater samples were collected every ten feet during advancement of the borings in 
the saturated zone and were submitted for laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples 
were collected by lowering an in-line submersible pump mounted on a drill rod down the 
borehole. The pump had a screened drive point attached to the end. The pump and 
screen were set at the bottom of the borehole. The casing was then pulled back two feet 
to reveal the formation. Groundwater was then pumped to the surface. Fine-grained 
materials present in the unconsolidated materials limited groundwater flow in some cases, 
and prevented collection of a groundwater sample. Generally a purge volume of 1 .5 
times the amount of water introduced during the drilling of the previous interval was 
purged. If this amount could not be recovered the sample interval was purged for one 
hour. If at that time a groundwater profiling sample was not collected the borehole was 
continued. 



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3. 4. 3 Hollow-Stem A uger Rig 

A hollow-stem auger rig was used to install monitoring well MW-24, a water table well 
outside of the Impact Area. The hollow-stem auger rig was selected because of ease of 
access for the all-terrain vehicle and because of the shallow depth to the water table. The 
borehole was sampled every ten feet using a split-spoon sampling device. The soil 
lithology was logged by an Ogden geologist and screened with a FID. No groundwater 
profiling samples were collected in this water-table borehole. 

3.4.4 Monitoring Well Construction 

Monitoring wells were constructed with 2.5-inch inside diameter (ID) Schedule 80 PVC. 
Well screens were 2.5-inch ID Schedule 80 PVC with 0.010-inch slots. Generally five- 
foot long well screens were installed for deep and intermediate wells, and ten-foot long 
well screens were installed on shallow wells. The following deep monitoring wells were 
installed with 10-foot long screens: MW-1D, MW-7D, MW-10D, MW-15D, MW-17D, 
MW-18D, MW-21D, and MW-23D. Table 3 summarizes the monitoring well 
construction details for all wells installed during this investigation. 

At nested well locations shallow and deep monitoring wells were constructed within the 
same borehole, and separate boreholes were installed for intermediate depth wells. At 
two locations (MW-1 and MW-23) a triple well nest was installed in one boring. To 
accomplish this the shallowest well was constructed of 2-inch diameter Schedule 40 PVC 
instead of the 2.5-inch schedule 80 PVC specified in the Final Action Plan. The smaller 
diameter PVC was used because there was insufficient room inside the drill casing to fit 
three wells constructed of schedule 80 PVC. 

Deep monitoring wells were set above bedrock or the till overlying bedrock. Shallow 
monitoring wells were installed at the water table with the well screened across the water 
table. Intermediate wells were installed at depths based on groundwater profiling results 
or at depths useful for USGS age dating. Table 4 summarizes the rationale for the 
placement of each intermediate well. 

After well screens were set at the desired depths, a sand pack, consisting of #0 sand was 
installed around the well screen to a depth two feet above the top of the well screen. A 
sand pack consisting of #00 sand was then installed to a depth at least four feet above the 
top of the screen to prevent bentonite from infiltrating the coarser sand pack. A bentonite 
seal at least two feet thick was then installed. The formation was then allowed to collapse 
to fill the remainder of the borehole. However, during the construction of most 
monitoring wells, the formation collapse did not occur in the unsaturated zone all the way 
to the ground surface. Clean sand was used to fill any voids in the borehole annulus. A 



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composite laboratory sample was collected from the clean sand to insure that it was free 
of contamination. The composite sample was analyzed for VOC, S VOC, explosives, 
pesticides/PCB, herbicides, metals, cyanide, methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), EDB, 
nitrate/nitrite-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and phosphate-phosphorus. The compounds 
detected were: 



Nitrate/Nitrite-Nitrogen at 0.01 mg/kg 
Phosphate-Phosphorus at 40.0 mg/kg 
Aluminum at 915.0 mg/kg 
Calcium at 1 09 mg/kg 
Total chromium at 1.8 mg/kg 
Cobalt at 0.92 mg/kg 
Copper at 1 .70 mg/kg 
Iron at 1980 mg/kg 
Lead at 1 .9 mg/kg 
Magnesium at 374.0 mg/kg 
Manganese at 44.0 mg/kg 
Nickel at 1 . 1 mg/kg 
Potassium at 212.0 mg/kg 
Vanadium at 3.2 mg/kg 
Zinc at 5.5 mg/kg 
Acetone at 3.0 ug/kg. 



The concentrations of inorganics are all below the proposed subsurface soil background 
levels presented in Section 4. The acetone detection is likely a laboratory contaminant, as 
discussed in Section 4.4. 

The top two feet of the borehole were grouted with a 95/5 percent mixture of concrete 
and bentonite. A flush-mount roadbox was installed at all monitoring wells in the Impact 
Area, except MW-14 on the southern perimeter. A single bump post was installed 
immediately adjacent to MW-14. Outside the Impact Area monitoring wells were 
completed with locking stick-up protective covers. 

3.4.5 Well Development 

According to the Final Action Plan, the monitoring wells would be developed a minimum 
of seven days after the monitoring well was constructed. The MMR SOP for well 
development (MMR TECH-004) requires well development a minimum of 24 hours and 
a maximum of seven days after installation. In order to make the development process 
more efficient, the time limit was eliminated so that monitoring wells were grouped for 
development. The EPA was notified of this change in a letter dated September 9, 1997. 



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The development process was initiated by measuring the water level and using the well 
construction diagram to determine the well volume. Next a pump was inserted into the 
well and the well was surged and pumped at the same time. Various pumps were used 
including airlift, inertial, and submersible. The typical scenario consisted of initially 
using an air lift pump to surge and remove large volumes of water and silt. If the 
turbidity of the development water did not drop, then the airlift pump was removed and a 
submersible pump was installed and pumped at a lower flow rate. 

The Final Action Plan (ETA, 1 997) stated that well development would be considered 
complete when the field parameters of pH, specific conductance, temperature, and 
turbidity stabilized within ten percent for three consecutive readings. Because of the high 
turbidity readings on some wells, the development process was continued beyond when 
the other field parameters had stabilized. Generally the development time was continued 
until the turbidity dropped below 30 nephlometric turbidity units (NTU), unless judged 
infeasible by comparing the volume of water removed to the rate of turbidity reduction. 
A summary of the volume of water removed from each well during development and 
turbidity is provided in Table 5. 

3.4.6 Decontamination Procedures 

All drill rigs were decontaminated when they arrived at the site, between each drilling 
location, or when they left the site. Drill rigs were decontaminated using a pressure- 
driven steam cleaner. Development equipment was also decontaminated between well 
locations by steam cleaning. 

3.5 Subsurface Soil Sampling 

3. 5. 1 Impact Area and Demo Area 

Soil samples were collected using a two-foot split-spoon sampling device at locations 
where the Barber rig was drilling. The split-spoon was attached to rods and lowered 
down the center of the drill rod and drill bit to undisturbed soils. The split spoon 
sampler was advanced using a 150-pound hammer. Blow counts were recorded every six 
inches. Rotosonic boreholes were advanced by sonically vibrating/hydraulically pushing 
7-inch diameter drill rod downhole in 20-foot sections. The drill rod was removed and 
the cored overburden was extruded into 5-foot plastic sleeves. Seven-inch diameter 
casing was then advanced downhole in 20-foot sections. 

In each case, the lithology of soil samples was recorded by an Ogden geologist and 
screened with an FID. Soil samples were then collected directly from the split-spoon or 



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the plastic sleeves. If the volume of soil recovered in the split-spoon was not adequate 
for the required sample parameters, additional split spoon samples were collected. Soil 
samples were collected per the procedure described in Section 3.3. 

The sampling protocol for boreholes installed in the Impact Area and Demo Areas is 
summarized below. Sample collection was consistent with MMR SOPs, the Ogden 
Health and Safety Guidelines (Ogden, 1994), and the EPA Standard Guide for Composite 
Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities (EPA, 
1996c). 

Under Sampling Protocol 2, outlined in Section 4 of the Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997), 
the following activities occurred (every sample having an explosives detection by the 
CRREL method was also analyzed by Method 8330): 

1 . A 0-6 inch hand auger sample was collected and submitted for explosives, inorganics, 
VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides/PCBs, herbicides, and EDB/MTBE; 

2. An 18-24 inch hand auger sample was collected and submitted for explosives and 
inorganics after the results for the 0-6 inch sample were received; and 

3. The 18-24 inch hand auger sample was also submitted for any other analytes that 
were detected in the 0-6 inch sample. 

4. The 10-12 foot interval was FID screened and submitted for explosives, inorganics, 
and other analytes; 

5. From ten feet below grade until the water table is encountered, a soil sample for 
chemical analysis and lithologic logging was collected every ten feet using a split 
spoon; 

6. The 20-22 foot interval was FID screened and submitted for explosives, and 
inorganics; 

7. Each sample below the 20-22 foot interval was screened with an FID and sampled for 
explosives (submitted ON HOLD) and inorganic analysis; 

8. The soil samples submitted ON HOLD for explosives were analyzed only if 
explosives were detected in the 10-12 foot or 20-22 foot sample interval; and 

9. Each sample below the 20-22 foot interval was sampled for VOCs, SVOCs, 
pesticides/PCBs, herbicides, and EDB/MTBE only if there was a response on the 
FID. 

Analytical Methods Include: 

Analyte Method 

VOC OLM03.1 

SVOC OLM03.1 

Pesticide/PCB OLM03.1 



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Herbicide 8151 

EDB/MTBE 8021 

Metals 6010 

Cyanide ILM04 

Phosphate-phosphorous 365.2 

Nitrate/nitrite-nitrogen 353.2 

Ammonia-nitrogen 350.2 

Explosives Screen CRREL 

Explosives 8330 

3.5.2 Outside the Impact A rea 

The sampling protocol for boreholes installed in the Impact Area and Demo Areas is 
summarized below. Sample collection was consistent with MMR SOPs, the Ogden 
Health and Safety Guidelines (Ogden, 1994), and the EPA Standard Guide for Composite 
Sampling and Field Subsampling for Environmental Waste Management Activities (EPA, 
1996c). 

Soil samples were collected continuously in a five-foot long plastic core bag for 
lithologic logging and FID screening. Each sample registering a response by the FID was 
analyzed for non-explosive organic compounds. 

Analytical Methods Include: 

Analvte Method 

VOC OLM03.1 

SVOC OLM03.1 

Pesticide/PCB OLM03.1 

Herbicide 8151 

EDB/MTBE 8021 

3.5.3 Decontamination Procedures 

All sampling equipment was decontaminated after each sample was collected. 
Decontamination was performed by scrubbing sampling equipment with a soap and 
deionized water mixture. The equipment was then sprayed with deionized water, 
methanol, and finally with deionized water. Sampling equipment that had been 
decontaminated and was not immediately reused was wrapped in aluminum foil. 



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3.6 Groundwater Profiling Sampling 

Groundwater profiling samples were collected below the water table as boreholes were 
advanced. At each sample interval, the borehole was purged prior to sampling. Purge 
volumes were equal to 1 .5 times the amount of water introduced to the borehole since the 
previous sample interval purging. The purge volume was based on a draft SOP prepared 
by Jacobs Engineering for AFCEE (Jacobs Eng., 1998). If water was not introduced 
since the previous sample interval, the borehole was not purged. 

At some sample intervals the permeability of the sample interval was too small to 
produce recoverable amounts of groundwater. In this case, the sample interval was 
evacuated for at least one hour. If the sample interval did not yield enough water to 
collect a sample, the borehole was advanced to the next interval. The following are the 
sample intervals where groundwater profiling samples could not be collected: 

MW-1 72, 242, 302, and 3 12 feet 

MW-10 160, 175, 215, 225, 235, 245, 255, 265, 335, 355, and 363 feet 

MW-1 6 222, 232, 242, 252, 302, 312, 322, 362, and 368 feet 

MW-1 7 302 and 312 feet 

MW-1 8 302 and 312 feet 

MW-21 236, 286, 317, 326, 346, 355, and 366 feet 

MW-23 283, 303, and 313 feet 

Groundwater profiling samples collected both in the Impact Area and outside of the 
Impact Area were sampled and analyzed for explosives using EPA Method 8330 and for 
VOC by Method OLM 03.01 . Samples were collected directly from bailers or from 
submersible pumps as described in Section 3.3. Groundwater profiling results were used 
to determine monitoring well screening depths. The placement of the well screen for 
intermediate depth monitoring wells was based primarily on explosive results and VOC 
results, and secondly on USGS recommendations for age dating as described in section 
3.4.4. 

3.7 Groundwater Monitoring Well Sampling 

Sixty investigation monitoring wells were installed at 30 locations as part of the IAGS 
(Table 3). Upon completion of well installation the wells were developed per MMR 
SOPs. Groundwater samples were collected for laboratory analysis using the EPA 
Region 1 low stress (low flow) purge and sampling method (EPA, 1 996a). Groundwater 
samples were collected from all newly installed wells (locations MW-1 to MW-30), the 
Schooner Pass Condominium Well, Long Range Water Supply wells, Bourne Wells, and 
IRP monitoring wells. Specific wells sampled in each area are listed in Section 4. 



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Several substitutions were made to the original list of wells specified for sampling in the 
Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997). IRP wells at CS-18 were proposed for sampling in the 
Final Action Plan, but were not sampled because the construction of these wells had been 
compromised since installation. At CS-19 well 58MW0009E was sampled in place of 
well 58MW0008E at the request of MADEP. LRWS-1-2 was substituted for LRWS-1-1 
because the well cap of the latter could not be removed. At FS-14 well MW0003 was 
substituted for MW0001 because of reported detections in the former well in previous 
sampling. FS-12 well 90WT0003 was substituted for 90MW0023 because it had a 
previous detection of tetryl. All substitutions occurred with the agreement of EPA and 
MADEP. 

FS-12 monitoring, wells 90WT0004, 90MW0070, 90MW0071, and 90MW0080 were 
added to the groundwater sampling program in response to the detection of explosives in 
MW-30S. FS-12 monitoring wells 90MW0003, 90WT0006, 90MW0034, 90MW0041, 
and 90MW005 1 were added to the groundwater sampling program in response to the 
detection of explosives in FS-12 well 90WT0013. Well 90MW0051 was found to be no 
longer functional and was replaced with 90WT0019. The Bourne well 95-14 was added 
to the sampling program because a previous groundwater sample collected by Atlantic 
Environmental was reported to have an explosive detection. Subsequent analysis of the 
sample collected in the IAGS showed no explosives present. 

3. 7. 1 Sampling Methodology 

Groundwater sampling was performed using the EPA Region 1 Low Stress (low flow) 
Sampling Technique (EPA, 1 996a) using a portable stainless steel bladder pump with 
dedicated polyethylene tubing. The process for collecting groundwater samples was as 
follows: 

1) Measure the water level before installing the pump. 

2) Install the pump slowly to the midpoint of the screened interval without touching the 
pump to bottom of the well. Keep the pump intake at least two feet above the bottom 
of the well to minimize mobilization of particulates at the well bottom. 

3) Measure water level before starting the pump. 

4) Purge the well using low stress sampling technique as follows: 

• Start the pump at the lowest speed setting. If necessary, slowly increase the speed 
until discharge occurs. 



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• Check the water level and adjust the pumping rate until there is little or no water 
level drawdown (less than 0.3 feet). 

• If the minimal drawdown achieved exceeds 0.3 feet, but remains stable, continue 
to purge until indicator parameters stabilize. 

• Monitor and record the water level and pumping rate every 3 to 5 minutes (or as 
appropriate) during purging. 

• Record any pump rate adjustments (both time and flow rates.) 

• Do not allow the water level to fall to the intake level (if the static water level was 
above the well screen, avoid lowering the water level into the screen.) 

5) Monitor indicator field parameters (turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, 
Eh or oxidation-reduction potential [ORP], and dissolved oxygen [DO]) using a clear 
flow-through-cell for all parameters except turbidity. A separate meter was used to 
monitor turbidity. 

• During well purging the indicator field parameters were monitored every three to 
five minutes until stabilization occurred. An effort was made to sample the wells 

only after the turbidity dropped below 30 NTUs. • 

• Stabilization was achieved when three consecutive readings taken at 3 to 5 minute 
intervals were within the following ranges: 

Parameter Stabilization Range 

Turbidity 10 percent for values >1 NTU 

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 10 percent 

Specific Conductance 3 percent 

Temperature 3 percent 

pH + or -0.1 unit 

ORP/Eh + or - 1 millivolts 

6) Collect Water Samples 

• Water samples were collected before passing through the flow-through-cell. 

• During purging and sampling, the tubing would remain filled with water so as to 
minimize possible changes in water chemistry upon contact with the atmosphere. 
If the pump tubing was not completely filled to the sampling point, then the non- 
VOC samples were collected first, then the flow rate was increased until the water 
filled the tubing. Then the VOC sample was collected and the new drawdown, 
flow rate, and parameters were recorded. 

• Sample containers were pre-filled by the laboratory with the appropriate amount 
of preservative. 

• Samples were collected for analysis. 



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A pH reading was obtained following SOPs MMR TECH-041. 

An in-line filter was used for filtered metals. A 0.45 micron filter was pre-rinsed 

with approximately 25-50 ml of groundwater prior to sample collection. 

Samples were immediately placed into a cooler with ice. 

The dissolved oxygen content was measured and recorded using a field test kit. 

The well was secured prior to departing. 



3.7.2 Analysis 



Groundwater was analyzed for the following parameters. 



Analvte 



Method 



VOC (except background locations) 

Explosives (except background locations) 

Metals 

Cyanide 

Pesticides/PCBs 

SVOC 

Herbicides 

Hardness as Calcium Carbonate 

Phosphate-phosphorous 

Nitrate/Nitrite-nitrogen 

Ammonia-nitrogen 

MTBE (except background locations) 

EDB (except background locations) 



OLC02.1 

8330 

6010 

ILM04 

OLC02.1 

OLC02.1 

8151 

130.1 

365.2 

353.2 

350.2 

8021 

504.1 



Ogden coordinated with the IRP and Jacobs Engineering to evaluate the groundwater 
analytical data for each of the existing wells to determine whether data collected within 
the last year met the data quality objectives of this groundwater quality study. Where 
appropriate, Ogden utilized previous groundwater data and supplemented existing data 
with that obtained from this groundwater sampling effort. 

The IRP data for the FS-12 wells 90WT0005, 90WT0013, and 90MW0022 showed that 
VOC data which met the data quality objective had been collected within the previous 
year, therefore, no VOC samples were collected from these wells. The FS-12 wells 
90MW0003, 90WT0004, 90WT0006, 90WT0019, 90MW0034, 90MW0041, 
90MW0070, 90MW0071, and 90MW0080 and the Bourne Well 95-14 were only 
analyzed for explosives because they were sampled in response to an explosive detection. 



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3. 7. 3 Decontamination Procedures 

The Final Action Plan (§5.1) states groundwater sampling pumps will be decontaminated 
by circulating a Liquinox™ solution, followed by a deionized water rinse. Because of the 
difficulty of disassembling the bladder pumps, the inside of the bladder pump was not 
rinsed with Liquinox™. Instead, the insides of the pumps were decontaminated by 
flushing the inside of the pump with approximately four gallons of deionized water. 
When groundwater sampling was initiated, rinsate blanks were collected at each well 
sampled. Results of the rinsate blank samples indicated that the decontamination process 
was adequate 

3.8 Surface Water and Sediment Sampling 

Nineteen surface water bodies intersecting groundwater or receiving storm water runoff 
were selected for surface water and sediment sampling. The ponds, swamps and bogs 
include Succonsette Pond, Bailey's Pond, Round Swamp, Raccoon Swamp, Great Pond, 
Doughnut Pond, Upper Pond, Gibbs Pond, Grassy Pond, Ox Pond, By-Pass Bog, a 
wetland area south of J-3 Range, Opening Pond, Rod and Gun Club North Pond, Donnely 
Pond, Little Halfway Pond, Deep Bottom Pond, the Cranberry Bog, and Snake Pond. 
The ponds, swamps and bogs were investigated as possible conduits and areas of 
compound accumulation. Raccoon Swamp, Great Pond, Doughnut Pond, and Upper 
Pond were identified as potential background sampling locations based on their isolation 
from known contaminant plumes or source areas at MMR. 

3.8.1 Sampling and A nalysis Methods 

Sediment sampling procedures were reviewed in the field with EPA prior to the start of 
sediment sampling. Sediment sampling was conducted in accordance with EPA Region 1 
Draft Sediment Sampling Guidance (EPA, 1997). 

Sample collection was conducted according to MMR SOPs and the Ogden Health and 
Safety Guidelines (Ogden, 1994). Every sediment sample indicating explosive detections 
by the CRREL method was also analyzed using EPA Method 8330. 

3.8.1.1 Surface Water 

The following protocol was followed during surface water and sediment sampling at 
ponds, bogs, and swamps. 

1 . Surface water was collected prior to sediment sampling; 



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2. The sample was collected by submerging the sample containers; 

3. Containers with preservative were filled slowly and not allowed to overflow the lid. 



Surface Water was analyzed for the following parameters. 



Analyte 



Method 



VOC (except background locations) 


OLC02.1 


Explosives (except background locations) 


8330 


Metals 


6010 


Cyanide 


ILM04 


Pesticides/PCBs 


OLC02.1 


SVOC 


OLC02.1 


Herbicides 


8151 


Hardness as Calcium Carbonate 


130.1 


Phosphate-phosphorous 


365.2 


Nitrate/Nitrite-nitrogen 


353.2 


Ammonia-nitrogen 


350.2 


MTBE (except background locations) 


8021 


EDB (except background locations) 


504.1 


3.8.1.2 Sediment 





Sediment sampling locations were collocated with surface water sampling locations. The 
following summarizes the sampling protocol for collection of sediment samples. 

A 0-6 inch sediment sample was collected from the same location as each surface water 
sample location after removal of the surficial organic layer (leaves, twigs, bark, and root 
mass), using a decontaminated hand auger or trowel; 

The sediment was placed in a decontaminated stainless steel bowl, water decanted or 
drained as needed to ensure a minimum of 30 percent solids, and homogenized (the VOC 
sample was taken directly from the hand auger or trowel prior to homogenization); and 
In some locations, sediment samples were also collected behind silt fences in place 
around several water bodies. 



Sediment samples were analyzed for the following parameters. 
Analyte 



VOC (except background locations) 

SVOC 

Pesticide/PCB 

Herbicide 



Method 



OLM03.1 
OLM03.1 
OLM03.1 
8151 



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EDB/MTBE (except background locations) 8021 

Metals 6010 

Cyanide ILM04 

Phosphate-phosphorous 365.2 

Nitrate/nitrite-nitrogen 353.2 

Ammonia-nitrogen 350.2 

TOC Lloyd Kahn 

Explosives Screen (except background locations) CRREL 

Explosives (if detected in screen) 8330 

3.8.2 Decontamination Procedures 

All sampling equipment was decontaminated after each sample was collected. 
Decontamination was performed by scrubbing sampling equipment with a soap and 
deionized water mixture. The equipment was then sprayed with deionized water, 
methanol, and finally with deionized water. Decontaminated sampling equipment that 
was not immediately reused was wrapped in aluminum foil. 

3.9 Storm Water Sampling 

The Final Action Plan states storm water samples will be collected where storm water 
flows off the Impact Area and from dry kettle holes within the Impact Area. The details 
of the sampling procedure and locations were described in the Final Field Sampling Plan 
for Storm Water (Ogden 1998d). The FSP identified nine storm water sampling 
locations. All sample locations were cleared of UXO in order to allow foot traffic and 
shallow excavations for sampling. National Weather Service forecasts were monitored to 
identify qualifying storm events (at least one inch of precipitation in 24 hours). 

A sample collection container was prepared at each sample location by placing a stainless 
steel bucket in a shallow excavation in the path of the storm water runoff. A cover was 
placed over the bowl to protect the container from direct collection of rainfall. Collection 
buckets were emptied and decontaminated prior to collection of samples. A qualifying 
storm event occurred on March 19, 1998 which allowed collection of samples at locations 
1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The remaining sample locations were monitored through May 1998 with 
no storm events resulting in sufficient sample volume. 

Samples were analyzed for the following compounds: 

Analvte Method 

VOC OLC02.1 

Explosives 8330 



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m 



Metals 

Cyanide 

Pesticides/PCBs 

SVOC 

Herbicides 

Hardness as Calcium Carbonate 

Phosphate-phosphorous 

Nitrate/Nitrite-nitrogen 

Ammonia-nitrogen 

MTBE 

EDB 

TOC 



6010 

ILM04 

OLC02.1 

OLC02.1 

8151 

130.1 

365.2 

353.2 

350.2 

8021 

504.1 

415.1 



3.10 Groundwater Elevation Measurements 

3.10.1 Quarterly Groundwater Level Measurements 

Groundwater elevations were measured at three-month intervals at new and existing wells 
on and in the vicinity of the Impact Area. A total of four rounds of groundwater elevation 
measurements were collected on June 30, 1997, September 30, 1997, December 30, 1997 
and April 1, 1998. Table 6 indicates the monitoring wells that were measured in each 
round, the depth to water and the groundwater elevation (feet above National Geodetic 
Vertical Datum [ngvd]). 

3.10.2 Data Loggers 

Water levels were monitored in three monitoring wells (CS19-MW0007E, LRWS 2-02, 
and AEHA-1 1) with continuous-recording devices (data loggers) for more than 3.5 
months. The location of these monitoring wells is presented in Figure A. Data loggers 
were set in each well below the water table. Data loggers contain pressure transducers 
that detect pressure changes caused by the change in hydraulic head over the pressure 
transducer. The data logger contains a memory device that records the changes in head 
over time. As each data logger was installed, the depth at which the data logger was set 
was recorded and the water level was also recorded. From this information, and the 
elevation of the monitoring well measuring point, the water level in each monitoring well 
was calculated from the continuously recorded hydraulic head measurements. The data 
loggers were initially set to record water level measurements every four hours. After one 
month of measurements the recording interval was changed to measure the water level 
every 1 5 minutes. The data loggers were downloaded periodically to ensure that data was 
not lost or overwritten. 



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Data logger data was used to generate hydrographs of each well from July 31,1 997 to 
November 24, 1997. Precipitation and barometric pressure data were also plotted with 
the water level data. 

3.11 Location and Elevation Survey 

A total of 337 points were surveyed for horizontal and vertical position. These locations 
include all sample locations (soil, monitoring well, sediment, surface water, and storm 
water) and additional specific locations of interest (locations on the J-l range). These 
locations were surveyed using a Global Positioning System (GPS) and conventional land 
surveying where tree cover obscured the satellites for GPS surveying. Survey locations 
were accurate to within 0.1 feet horizontally and 0.01 feet vertically. A second surveyor 
using a separate GPS unit verified approximately one third of GPS survey locations. 

3.12 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 

In an effort to ensure consistent quality in sample collection and analysis, quality control 
samples were collected and laboratory and field audits were conducted. Quality control 
samples collected included sample duplicates, equipment blanks, trip blanks, matrix spike 
samples, and analyses of decontamination fluids. In addition, Ogden periodically audited 
field sampling procedures, to ensure compliance with FSPs, the Final Action Plan and 
MMR SOPs. Ogden also conducted an exhaustive audit on Intertek Testing Services, the 
laboratory performing the sample analyses. The following sections summarize these 
activities. 

3.12.1 Quality Control Samples 

Duplicate samples were collected to ensure that compositing and sample collection was 
done consistently. Sample duplicates were collected at a rate of one per 1 samples per 
sample media. For composite solid samples, duplicate samples were filled concurrently 
with the original samples. Solid grab samples were collected by initially filling one grab 
container, then filling the duplicate container with soil/sediment from the same vicinity. 
Aqueous samples were filled by alternately filling original and duplicate sample 
containers. 

Equipment blanks were collected to verify the sample equipment decontamination 
procedure. Equipment blanks were collected at a rate of one per day per type of sampling 
equipment. For instance, if two drill rigs were collecting soil samples on one day, only 
one field blank was collected. The one exception to this sample collection rate was 
groundwater sampling. At the request of EPA, equipment blanks were initially collected 
at every well sampled. The reason for the additional requirement was to ensure that 



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polyethylene tubing used during monitoring well sampling did not adversely impact 
sample results. The equipment blank rate was reduced to one per day when analytical 
results showed that the polyethylene tubing was not impacting groundwater samples. 
Equipment blanks were collected by pouring deionized water over all sampling 
equipment. The deionized water source was also tested as discussed below. 

Matrix spike and matrix spike duplicates were collected at a rate of one per 20 samples 
per media. Matrix spike and matrix spike duplicates were analyzed by the laboratory to 
identify potential compound interferences within sample media. These samples ensure 
that compound interferences are not incorrectly identified as analyte compounds. 

Trip blanks were collected for VOC analyses at a rate of one per sample crew per day. 
Sample containers were filled with deionized water and traveled with the VOC sample 
containers throughout the day. These samples were collected to determine if VOC 
encountered during the course of sampling activities, not directly associated with 
sampling, had contaminated VOC samples. 

Anytime a new water source was introduced, a sample was analyzed for all sample 
parameters. Water sources included laboratory deionized water and on-site deionized 
water. In addition, each time the filters in the deionization system were changed a source 
sample was analyzed. 

3.12.2 Quality Assurance A udits of Field Procedures 

The following are findings of the three internal field audits performed by Ogden 
personnel. The three audits occurred on August 4-8, 1997, September 15-18, 1997, and 
October 20-23, 1997. 

• A 5 5 -gallon drum of personal protection equipment was not labeled and the drum ring 
was not properly secured. 

• No consistent procedure was in effect for the tracking and documentation of 
deviations from the field procedures. 

• A section of well screen, which was not factory sealed in a bag, was about to be 
installed in the boring without being decontaminated. 

• Groundwater samples for VOCs were being collected from the pump discharge hose 
at a location where exhaust from the pump's generator could potentially cause cross- 
contamination. 

• Groundwater profile sampling containers for VOCs and explosives were not labeled 
on site at the time of sampling. Unlabeled sampling containers were filled, placed in 
a zip-lock bag and placed in the sampling cooler. 

• The Sonic drilling crew added Super Gel Extra High Yield Bentonite to drilling water 



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to better maintain hole integrity in unstable sands. Product label information on the 
bag did not indicate additives other than bentonite. Information from the 
manufacturer indicates that it contains partially hydrolyzed sodium poly-acrylate 
additive. Drill personnel indicated that they have used previously in drilling at MMR. 

• Groundwater screening volatile organic analyte vials contained air bubbles. 

• A 2-inch diameter PVC pipe used to tremie bentonite chips down the borehole was 
not decontaminated prior to use. 

• During well construction some good house keeping practices were not being used. 
Dirty work gloves or bare hands were observed when feeding sand or bentonite chips 
down the borehole. Electrical tape was used to hold weight on a tag line. A tag line 
was allowed to touch the ground before it was rolled up. 

• The hand auger used to collect the composite samples was not decontaminated prior 
to collecting the discrete VOC sample. 

• No exclusion zone set up during groundwater sampling activity along a road traveled 
by subcontractors and military personnel. 

All the above conditions that were observed during the field QA audit were corrected 
immediately if possible. For those conditions that were not immediately corrected, a plan 
was put in place to correct them as soon as possible. 

3.12.3 Quality Assurance Audits of Laboratory Procedures 

On July 28-29, 1997, Ogden personnel conducted a systems audit of the Intertek Testing 
Services, Burlington, Vermont Facility to assure adherence to laboratory and project 
specific QA/QC procedures. An audit report was published dated September 24, 1997 
which documented any nonconformance and findings identified during the audit. 
Included in the observations were inadequate QA/QC procedures with the CRREL 
explosives screening method. An another observation was the potential for cross 
contamination during the use of the CRREL screening method. The lack of a 
comprehensive system for reagent tracking, lack of statistically derived control charts, 
and the lack of consistent criteria for acceptance of analytical quantitation and quality 
control standards were other observations. 

During the audit, the laboratory altered practices in the CRREL lab to ensure adherence 
to QA/QC standards. Subsequent to the audit, the laboratory instituted practices to 
reduce the potential for cross contamination during the CRREL screen, implemented a 
comprehensive tracking system for reagents, produced statistically derived control charts 
for EPA S W-846 methods, and began development of a procedure to assess quantitation 
and quality control standards in a more timely and consistent manner throughout the 
laboratory. 



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fi Si 



Upon reviewing the first 30 sample data groups of analytical data for the project, the 
following were identified as common QA/QC trends: 

Herbicides (EPA method 8151): 

• Calibration deficiencies with MCPP and MCPA. 

• Intermittent calibration deficiencies with acifluorfen, dinoseb, picloram, chloramben, 
dalapon, acifluorfen and PCP. 

• Poor recovery of dinoseb, acifluorfen and PCP in soils and poor recovery of picloram 
and chloramben in waters. 

GC Volatiles (EPA Method 8021): 

• Poor surrogate recovery of surrogates in the soil matrix. The lightweight nature of the 
site soil matrix has been suspected in decreasing purge efficiencies of the method. 

Explosives (EPA Method 8330): 

• Coelution of multiple target compounds on confirmation column increasing the 
probability for false positives. 

• Poor recovery of PA in water. 

• Calibration deficiencies with PETN. 

Pesticide/PCBs (Methods OLM03.1/OLC02.1): 

• Intermittent BHC contamination of method blanks and/or site samples. The 
laboratory identified samples from another site which contained percent levels of 
BHCs that caused contamination in the laboratory; however, measures taken to isolate 
those samples have not proven to be as effective as desired. 

Semivolatiles (Methods OLM03.1/OLC02.1): 

• Consistent calibration deficiencies for hexachlorocyclopentadiene 

• Occasional calibration deficiencies for carbazole and 3,3' dichlorobenzidine. 

• Laboratory contamination of method blanks and site samples with BEHP. 

Volatiles (Methods OLM03.1/OLC02.1): 

• Acetone contamination of method blanks and site samples. Potential source of 
contamination was eliminated which has reduced the occurrence of acetone 
contamination. Acetone relative response factor in water calibration continues to 
cause rejection of nondetects for acetone in water samples. 

Wet Chemistry (various methods): 

• Calibration deficiencies for phosphate-phosphorous, CRREL, and ammonia-nitrogen. 

• Field contamination of TOC samples. 



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These findings have been used to qualify the data in accordance with EPA guidelines, as 
specified in the Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997). Validation qualifiers are provided in the 
complete tables of validated data in Appendix C. A Data Quality Assessment for all of 
the IAGS data is provided in Appendix D. 



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4. Investigation Results 

A total of 1291 samples of soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater were collected 
as part of this study. The majority of samples were analyzed for 165 organic compounds 
and 35 inorganics. In excess of 200,000 individual analyses were made as part of this 
study. Samples collected (including duplicates) include: 

• 438 hand auger samples (0-0.5 feet and 1.5-2 feet bgs) from grids in areas 1-22, 41, 
and 42. Each of these samples is a composite of samples collected from nine separate 
locations within a grid, so that a total of 3942 individual locations were sampled; 

• 280 soil boring profile samples from borings 1-30 (excluding boring 21 which did not 
have any FID detections that required sampling); 

• 75 sediment samples from water bodies including Succonsette Pond, J-3 Wetland, 
Rod & Gun Club North Pond, Deep Bottom Pond, Cranberry Bog, Round Swamp, 
Grassy Pond, Ox Pond, Donnely Pond, Little Halfway Pond, Raccoon Swamp, Snake 
Pond, Baileys Pond, Gibbs Pond, Opening Pond, Bypass Bog, Great Pond, Doughnut 
Pond, and Upper Pond; 

• 69 surface water samples from water bodies including Succonsette Pond, J-3 
Wetland, Rod & Gun Club North Pond, Deep Bottom Pond, Cranberry Bog, Round 
Swamp, Grassy Pond, Ox Pond, Donnely Pond, Little Halfway Pond, Raccoon 
Swamp, Snake Pond, Baileys Pond, Gibbs Pond, Opening Pond, Bypass Bog, Great 
Pond, Doughnut Pond, and Upper Pond; 

• 6 storm water samples from the perimeter of the Impact Area; 

• 295 groundwater profiling samples from borings 1-3, 5-10, 13, 15-19, 21, 23, 25, 27 
and 30; 

• 128 groundwater samples from 122 wells including MW1-30 (60 wells total), CS19- 
MW0002, CS19-MW0005E, CS19-MW0006E, CS19-MW0007C, CS19-MW0007E, 
CS19-MW0009E, CS19-MW0010A, CS19-MW001 IE, Bourne 95-6, Bourne 95-14, 
Bourne 95-15, Bourne 97-1, Bourne 97-2, Bourne 97-3, Bourne 97-5, LRWS1-2, 
LRWS2-3, LRWS2-6, LRWS3-1, LRWS4-1, LRWS5-1, LRWS6-1, LRWS7-1, 
LRWS8-2, LRWS10-1, 28MW0106, BHW215083, USGS-SD263111, USGS- 
SD261160, USFW228040, USFW241098, BB-703, FS12-90MW0003, FS12- 
90WT0003, FS12-90WT0004, FS12-90WT0005, FS12-90WT0006, FS12- 
90WT0008, FS12-90WT0010, FS12-90WT0013, FS12-90MW0022, FS12- 
90MW0023, FS12-90MW0034, FS12-90MW0041, FS12-90MW0051, FS12- 
90MW0054, FS12-90MW0070, FS12-90MW0071, FS12-90MW0080, FS12- 
ECMWSNP02S, FS12-ECMWSNP02D, FS12-ECMWSNP03S, FS12- 
ECMWSNP03D, FS14-MW0003, CS10-MW122A, CS10-MW0604A, CS10- 
MW0060, CS1-WT711, CS1-WT712, RW-1, RW-3, and Schooner Pass 
Condominium. 



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The following sections present a subset of the data separated by media and, for soil 
samples, by sampling area. In order to create a manageable subset of data for discussion, 
the discussion is limited to detections in excess of proposed background concentrations 
for the I AGS. The proposed background concentrations are presented with the discussion 
of data for each media. 

All frequencies of detection in the following sections include duplicate samples. 
Therefore, the actual numbers of locations where the compounds were detected may be 
slightly lower than indicated. 

4.1 Archive Reports 

Findings from the archive searches were provided in the Draft Range Use History Report 
(Ogden 1 997a), the Draft Chemical Composition of Munitions Report (Ogden 1 997b), 
and the Draft Report on Fate and Transport of Munitions-Related Materials (Ogden 
1997c). Summaries of these findings are provided below. 

4.1.1 Range Use History 

4.1.1.1 Conclusions 

The munitions used at the Impact Area over the years include ammunition for military 
small arms, machine guns, mortars, and artillery, as well as demolition materials (Ogden, 
1997a). The activities at each of the range areas are reasonably well documented in the 
range SOPs. These include a list of the weapons to be fired at each separate range. 
While the specific set of weapons may change at a given range area, the set of weapons 
across the whole site is relatively constant. It is clear the number and location of the 
various ranges has changed through the history of the range. For example, in 1983, 
ranges were reconfigured, renamed, and/or combined with other ranges. In response to 
this level of change, a comprehensive list of the various range locations has been 
developed and is presented in the draft Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1997a). These 
tables include the definition of unique site-locations and description of known historical 
activities at each location. Maps showing many of these locations are provided in Ogden 
(1997a). It should be noted that these summaries are based on historic documents to the 
extent they are available. 

The least documented aspect of the use of the facilities at Camp Edwards is the volume of 
munitions used. Records of munition use are available for 1989 and 1993 through 1996. 
These data refer to the general class (e.g., size) of weapon fired. The munitions used in 
different weapons and the chemical content of these munitions is discussed in the 
Chemical Composition of Munitions Report (Ogden, 1997b). 



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The data available for recent years are likely to represent an underestimate of the rates of 
munitions use during periods of more intensive base activities such as war-time 
mobilization. The use of HE artillery rounds (105-mm and 155-mm guns) was 
discontinued in 1995. The use of HE mortar rounds was discontinued in 1997. It is 
likely that the total amount of munitions used at MMR is approximately 200 times the 
rate of a single year's recent use, based on war-time populations on post and some 
assumptions regarding years of high and low use (Ogden, 1997a). 

The review of historic archives has been supplemented by a number of interviews with 
individuals who had access to the base during some portion of the last 50 years. More 
interviews are planned and a public request has been made for persons with knowledge of 
base activities to come forward. Much of the information obtained in the interviews is 
consistent with that of the range SOPs (e.g., location of historic ranges, firing activities at 
historic ranges). In many other cases, historic range practices are detailed that were not 
included in range SOPs or other historic documents (e.g., waste oil disposal practices, 
activities at BOMARC, etc.). The conduct of interviews will continue and 
reconnaissance tours will be conducted with individuals with in depth knowledge of the 
Impact Area. 

In summary, the archive search identified a number of historical activities that took place 
at MMR as well as a number of locations not apparent on the 1994 map of the training 
ranges. These findings are summarized in a set of tables and in an annotated map of 
MMR that present unique names for those locations and summarize all of the known 
historical activities at each one (Ogdenl997a). Despite these findings, the historical 
record of the post is incomplete. While specific rates of munition usage at MMR could 
not be reconstructed, it is estimated the annual rate of usage was higher, on average, than 
recent ones. This conclusion is supported by the larger populations present at the post as 
well as the greater need for training during wartime. 

4.1.1.2 Recommendations 

The review of historical range uses has uncovered a number of activities within the 
Impact Area and Training Ranges (Ogden, 1997a). Some of these activities, such as 
firing ranges or gun and mortar positions, are essentially similar to activities that were 
already known and included in the IAGS, but involve previously unknown locations. 
Such locations should be considered as candidates for further investigation. Other 
activities, such as the use of smokes, were not targeted in the IAGS and may require 
additional investigation protocols as well as additional sampling locations. 
Recommendations for further investigation of seven types of areas or activities are 
provided in the draft Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1997a). These include rocket 



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ranges, small arms ranges, bivouac areas, J ranges, demolition areas, utility lines, the 
BOMARC site (recommendation made to provide information to the IRP for 
consideration), and various locations such as clearings or vegetative burn areas identified 
in aerial photographs. 

4.1.2 Chemical Composition of Munitions 

The list of munitions known to have been used at MMR was compiled from the 1989 and 
1 994 through 1 996 munitions utilization reports, supplemented with the various other 
sources of munitions presumed to be used at MMR (Ogden, 1997b). Information 
concerning chemical composition and physical parts of these munitions was obtained 
from the MIDAS database. It was not always possible to obtain a report for a given 
munition from MIDAS, as it appears that MIDAS is incomplete with respect to some 
DODAC codes. 

A subset of the MIDAS database was generated to identify the predominant compounds 
in each munition type. The composition of each component of each munition was 
screened to select all of the compounds present in excess often percent (by weight) or 
that contains either lead or mercury. The ten percent criteria was arbitrarily selected for 
screening purposes. The resulting summary in Ogden (1997b) lists DODAC designation, 
munitions type, significant constituent compounds and their respective percent (by 
weight), and the weight of some individual constituents. Note the chemical contents of 
many munitions are very similar. Also note no mercury containing materials were found 
in the search of the MIDAS database for the munitions identified at MMR. 

A listing of all of the unique material names among the major components was developed 
and is presented in Ogden (1997b). These components are presented in alphabetical 
order. Contained in this list are several explosives (HMX, RDX, TNT, etc.); various 
dyes; metals contained in casings, projectiles, and as reactive agents; plastics used as 
casings; and a variety of miscellaneous organic chemicals (e.g., sugar, 
formaldehyde/melamin, lactose, etc.). 

Information on munitions used at MMR was also obtained from US Army technical 
manuals on munitions and environmental life cycle analysis reports. The first of these 
documents include technical specifications and diagrams of the munitions. The technical 
specifications include the intended use of munition including the intended weapons and 
their application; technical data on composition of the various munitions components; 
and references to other sources of information. The sketches include dimensions of 
various components. Also, information was identified on the composition and toxicity of 
smoke-generating materials. 



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4.1.3 Fate and Transport of Munitions 

The following conceptual model of the site is developed based on the available site- 
specific data and the general literature on the fate and transport of munitions-related 
materials (Ogden, 1997c). Much of the environmental behavior of both munitions and 
inorganics depends on site-specific hydrogeology and geochemistry. For example, in 
certain circumstances TNT is observed to be essentially immobile, whereas in others 
extensive groundwater plumes are observed. Because this is the case, this conceptual 
model should be considered as preliminary and subject to revision as data from the I AGS 
become available. The conceptual model is presented in order to facilitate data 
interpretation. 

The following conceptual model will be organized along the potential migration pathway 
of munitions-derived materials. In order, the elements of the potential migration pathway 
are: 

• Deposited materials subject to leaching in surface and shallow subsurface soils; 

• Migration of materials through the unsaturated zone with infiltrating precipitation; 
and 

• Migration of materials in groundwater. 

Each of these potential steps will be defined to the extent possible based on the available 
data. If major uncertainties exist around a process, this will be highlighted. 

The munitions-related materials in and around the Impact Area are most likely to be 
found in surface soils. This is consistent with the majority of site activities as well as 
previous characterizations of the site. The possible exception to this is where suspected 
wash-out activities may have resulted in rapid infiltration of materials into the 
unsaturated zone. Disposal of other liquids (such as waste oil during troop training 
maneuvers) may also result in the introduction of contaminants deep into the unsaturated 
zone. 

Generally, fragmented munitions (both organics and metals) are best considered to be 
very localized, low grade sources that accumulate over some area. Outstanding questions 
to be resolved in the IAGS are the density of the fragments (i.e., soil concentration) as 
well as the lateral and vertical extent of the affected area. In certain locations such as 
around gun positions, propellant materials may more uniformly affect soils. Outstanding 
questions in these locations are the concentration of materials in the soil as well as the 
lateral extent of the materials. 

Given the high rate of infiltration likely to occur in the Impact Area and its environs, 



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careful evaluation of the vertical transport of munitions-related material should be made. 
Two factors have the potential to limit the vertical migration to the water table: the 
relatively poor teachability of munition materials from fragments and potential for 
reaction in, and sorption to, the unsaturated zone solids. The highly permeable soils are 
likely to preclude ponding of water on soils, slowing the rate of explosive dissolution. 
Sorption to unsaturated zone solids is likely to limit migration given the depth of the 
unsaturated zone at the Impact Area and the propensity of both explosives and inorganics 
to associate with solids. 

While the original munition fragments are likely to leach poorly regardless of conditions 
likely to be encountered, it is difficult to estimate the mobility of the materials once they 
enter water solution. The rate of sorption and degradation for munitions-related materials 
has been shown to vary substantially with site-specific conditions, as discussed in Ogden 
(1997c). Therefore, the vertical extent of munitions-related materials observed at the site 
will be important in refining the conceptual model. For example, existing data on the 
concentration of lead in soils beneath small arms firing ranges suggest that elevated lead 
concentrations have migrated only a short distance into the unsaturated zone. Thus, it 
will be important to consider the soil conditions, the nature of the chemical, and the 
means of introduction when evaluating migration through the unsaturated zone. TNT is 
much more likely to be lost to aerobic degradation in soils and groundwater than either 
RDX or HMX. The latter two compounds have been observed to degrade in aerobic 
systems but the site of degradation is thought to be in anaerobic microzones. 

Existing studies of similar areas suggest materials present as solid explosive fragments in 
surface soils are relatively immobile. The dissolution of solid explosives into solution 
appears to be rate-limited. This conclusion is based on the general correlation of 
groundwater contamination with release of explosives in water solution, either during 
wash-out or during disposal during manufacture. 

As materials leave the bottom of the unsaturated zone, they will enter the groundwater. 
Migration in groundwater will occur according to the distribution of hydraulic head and 
hydraulic conductivity within the aquifer. From the Impact Area, groundwater will 
ultimately flow toward one of the coasts. Interaction with downgradient fresh surface 
waters is possible. In the near field, there is a possibility flow will have a downward 
component. As described by Masterson et al. (1996), the groundwater flow paths are 
affected by changes in lithology within the aquifer. For this reason, it is difficult to 
predict the exact path of any potential groundwater plume. Groundwater transport 
velocities are generally believed to be relatively fast due to the high hydraulic 
conductivities of the various units. 

Within groundwater, munitions-related materials will be subject to sorption, degradation, 



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and dispersion. The effectiveness of these processes at attenuating downgradient 
concentrations is not clear at this point in time. In the presence of oxidizing conditions, 
many of the more important metals (e.g., copper, lead, zinc) are likely to be substantially 
slowed relative to groundwater. Explosives are likely to sorb poorly to the sand and 
gravel portions of the Cape Cod aquifer. Sorption will likely be more efficient in those 
units that contain clay minerals and other materials with greater surface areas. The 
effectiveness of degradation of the explosive materials is uncertain although the relatively 
oxidizing conditions of the aquifer suggest that degradation will be relatively slow. 
Groundwater dispersion within the aquifer may also act to reduce groundwater 
concentrations but the effectiveness of this process is difficult to gauge at this time. 

4.2 Geology 

Lithologic information was collected during the installation of soil borings during the 
IAGS. In general, the lithology is consistent to what was discussed in Ogden (1997c). 
Some minor differences were noted in certain geologic features such as depth to bedrock 
from what the USGS expected, but for the most part no changes in the conceptual model 
are warranted. The region of study encompasses three of the four distinct units of 
lithology on the Cape; the Buzzards Bay Moraine, Sandwich Moraine, and Buzzards Bay 
Outwash Deposits. All of these units are representative of a glacial-fluvial environment. 

Fourteen borings were drilled to bedrock, which are useful in denoting the lithologic 
changes. However, these 14 borings cover an area of approximately 14,000 acres. Most 
borings are separated from each other by over a mile. Therefore, caution is recommended 
in interpreting the data. Given the scale of boring separation, only gross changes or 
trends are meaningful. 

The lithology consists of a heterogeneous mixture of cobbles to silt with some stratified 
sand and gravel zones (Table 7). The lithology consistently coarsens upwards and is 
consistent with a glacial depositional environment of topset, foreset, and bottomset beds 
as discussed by Masterson et. al. (1997). The total unconsolidated material thickness 
varies from 274 to 373 feet. 

The topset thickness varies from 50 to 260 feet (Figure C). The topset beds are most 
extensive for borings near the moraines and thin to the south and east. It seems likely the 
area of greatest extent at MW-15 and MW-17 wraps around behind wells MW-23 and 
MW-10. The foreset map (Figure D) is generally consistent with the overall trends of the 
topset beds. The thickest area of foreset beds is located to the west. In contrast to the 
topset and foreset beds, the pattern of bottomset thickness is different. The bottomset 
unit is thickest near the center of the IAGS and likely corresponds to the area of a glacial 
lake (Figure E). 



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Beneath the very fine material is a unit of lacustrine deposits that are lake-bottom 
sediments. Masterson et al. (1997) believes lacustrine deposits underlie all of the very 
coarse and very fine units. However, only four out of 14 locations were determined to 
have distinct changes in lithology to identify them as lacustrine deposits. Lacustrine 
deposits are identified as a sequence of ripple-drift overlain by normal and reverse-graded 
undulatory beds of fine sand and silts. The identification of such beds and differentiation 
from outwash deposits of fine sands and silts is difficult in four-inch diameter drill cores 
and even in cross-section may be indistinguishable from fluvial deposits. The 
determination is further complicated by the drilling methods used. The Sonic drill rig 
provided a continuous core that allows easier evaluation of changes in lithology. 
However, six of 14 borings were completed with a Barber drill rig that only produces 
cuttings of materials. 

Overlying bedrock is a unit of till material. Till is characterized as a poorly sorted unit of 
silt to gravels with a massive structure. The material is well compacted compared to the 
overlying units and thus relatively easily distinguishable. Although the till thickness 
ranges from to 32 feet (Figure F), its spatial distribution (Figure G) is similar to the 
bedrock contours (Figure H). The lack of till at MW-17 is likely the oversight of a very 
thin layer. The elevation of the bedrock surface varies from -128 to -195 feet above 
ngvd. 

From the lithologic information three cross-sections were developed for the I AGS. 
Section A to A' runs west to east, B to B' northwest to southeast, and C to C southwest 
to northeast (Figures I, J, and K). Within the Impact Area the groundwater elevation is 
typically around 60 feet ngvd and is found in the very coarse sand and gravel units. 

In addition to visual lithologic information, the USGS performed geophysical surveys on 
borings 10, 16, 17, 18, 21, and 23. The types of geophysical methods employed included 
caliper, resistivity, conductivity, and gamma. The resistivity and conductivity method 
seem to provide the most useful information (Figures L and M). The geophysical logs 
were in good agreement with the field descriptions. Geophysical logs for Well 10 are 
only provided since visual logs are provided in Appendix B for all borings. 

4.3 Hydrogeology 

A groundwater high is located to the southeast of the Impact Area with flow directed 
radially away from this point. Synoptic water level measurements were collected in June, 
October, and December 1997, and in April 1998, with little change noted in the 
configuration of the water table surface (Figures N, O, P, and Q). Groundwater flow 
from the Impact Area is towards the north and west with ultimate discharge into the Cape 



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Cod Canal and Buzzards Bay. Portions of Area 5 to the southeast of the Impact Area are 
located over the center of the mound. It appears water originating in this area flows to the 
southeast. The location of the groundwater divide is upgradient of MW-30S and FS12- 
90WT0013, which is consistent with the placement calculated by Solomon et. al. (1995). 
The groundwater system is unconfmed with the water table present at a depth of 
approximately 100 feet bgs (60 feet ngvd) within the Impact Area (Figures I, J, and K). 

The hydraulic head data presented in Table 6 and depicted in Figures N through Q can be 
used to calculate the hydraulic gradient between wells. The hydraulic gradient in and 
around the Impact Area ranges from 0.0002 to 0.003 (Table 8). Differences in hydraulic 
head between wells completed in the same cluster are so small as to be immeasurable. 
Thus, vertical gradients in the aquifer are small except at recharge and discharge 
locations. Solomon et. al. (1995) report horizontal hydraulic gradients of 0.004 and 
vertical hydraulic gradients of 0.006. 

Pumping or slug tests were not performed as part of the I AGS, so estimates of the 
hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer were not performed. However, Masterson et. al. 
(1996) provides an estimate of hydraulic conductivity ranging from 30 to 350 feet/day for 
the outwash material making up the aquifer. Solomon et. al. (1995) derived an average 
hydraulic conductivity of 426 feet/day using age-dating techniques in the FS-12 area. A 
similar result was obtained from a 72-hour pumping test at FS-12 yielding a hydraulic 
conductivity of 328 feet/day (Hazwrap, 1993). 

Using the values for hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and horizontal hydraulic gradient, 
the groundwater flow velocity of the aquifer can be estimated using Darcy's Law. Using 
the ranges of hydraulic conductivity supplied by Masterson et. al. (1996), a porosity of 
0.2 to 0.4 (Hazwrap, 1989), and a horizontal hydraulic gradient of 0.0004, the 
groundwater velocity ranges from 1 1 to 256 feet/year. This compares to velocities of 66 
to 305 feet/year estimated by Solomon et. al. (1995). Velocities will be lowest at the 
mound and increase downgradient as vertical flow gives way to horizontal flow. This 
downgradient increase can be seen in Figures N through Q where the potentiometric lines 
are closer together indicating an increasing head drop. 

Continuous water level measurements were recorded at three monitoring wells (AEHA- 
11, LRWS2-02, and CS19-58MW0007E) for approximately four months from August to 
November 1997 (Figures R, S, and T). In general, all three wells exhibit a decline in 
water level of a little over one foot. The decline is consistent with a reduction in 
precipitation events in the late summer. Water levels appear to respond to changes in 
barometric pressure, which is consistent with an unconfmed aquifer system. 

The USGS has developed a site-wide flow model, MODFLOW, for MMR. The specific 



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details of the model can be found in Masterson et. al. (1996). The USGS has utilized the 
model in conjunction with particle tracking to better delineate contaminant pathways, as 
discussed in Section 5. The model has been utilized throughout the I AGS to help direct 
the placement of monitoring wells and screen depths. USGS is updating the MODFLOW 
model with information from the I AGS. Data to be updated include depth to bedrock, 
lithology as it relates to hydraulic conductivity, and possibly water levels. Once updated, 
the site-wide model will be recalibrated and a sub-regional model focusing in on the 
Impact Area will then be developed. The sub-regional model will allow for refinement of 
particle paths and could be utilized for solute transport modeling. 

4.4 Analytical Data Quality 

This section provides a discussion of certain data quality issues that have arisen during 
technical meetings with EPA and MADEP. The discussion provides a useful introduction 
to the review of analytical results in Sections 4.5 through 4.8. The primary issues 
discussed here are a comparison of the results of screening and final analyses for 
explosives, and identification of a few analytes that may be present due to laboratory 
contamination. It is hoped that the discussion in this section will provide some 
perspective on the results discussed in the following sections. A complete data quality 
assessment is provided in Appendix D. 

4. 4. 1 CRREL versus EPA Method 8330 

The CRREL screening methodology was originally intended to provide a quick and 
inexpensive method for explosive analysis as compared to EPA Method 8330. The 
CRREL method is a colorimetric method that includes addition of a chemical reagent to 
the soil sample. If explosives are present in the soil a reaction occurs resulting in a color 
change to the liquid reagent added, which is then compared with a standard, similar to pH 
litmus paper. Color change was measured in the laboratory using a spectrophotometer, in 
accordance with the method. 

The compounds that can be detected using the CRREL method and EPA Method 8330 
are generally similar, as indicated in Table 9. The following compounds were added to 
the standard EPA Method 8330 for this project; 2,6-DANT, 2,4-DANT, PETN, AP/PA, 
and nitroglycerin. The CRREL RDX/HMX screening method can be used to detect 
nitrocellulose, a compound potentially present at MMR but not identifiable with EPA 
Method 8330. However if RDX is present, the CRREL method can not differentiate 
between it and nitroguanidine and nitrocellulose, as well as nitroglycerin and PETN. 

During the course of the IAGS it was determined many detections from the CRREL 
method were not confirmed using EPA Method 8330. A comparison between the 



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CRREL method and EPA Method 8330 was conducted to assess the reliability of the 
CRREL method as used in the IAGS. The percentages in Table 10 were obtained by 
tabulating the total number of samples analyzed for a given media and the number of 
times the CRREL method agreed with EPA Method 8330, the number of times the 
CRREL method indicated a detect and EPA Method 8330 indicated a non-detect, and the 
number of times the CRREL method indicated a non-detect and EPA Method 8330 
indicated a detect. The analysis revealed the CRREL Method did not yield results 
reproducible by EPA Method 8330. 

There are several reasons that may explain the numerous false positives with the CRREL 
method. The CRREL field screening methods have a method of detection limit of 
approximately 1 mg/kg. Only two out of the ten soil samples yielding detections with the 
EPA Method 8330 had a concentration above 1 mg/kg. Thus, the CRREL method is 
being used to screen for explosives in soil at concentrations near the method detection 
limit. At low levels interferences such as humic material can become problematic. 
Humic substances when in contact with water produce a yellow coloration which can be 
measured with a spectrophotometer. This coloration of the water was taken into account 
using a method described in Jenkins (1990) for the TNT/DNT method. However, it is 
possible this methodology was not sufficient to screen out false positives as a result of 
color interference. 

Strict reliance on the spectrophotometer to determine color change may have been an 
overly conservative approach that led to some of the false positives. The laboratory 
instrument made a determination of explosive presence if any color change was observed, 
in accordance with the CRREL method. A more subjective analysis would consider the 
recommendation in Jenkins (1990) and Walsh and Jenkins (1991) that only a specific 
color change, i.e. red, denoted the presence of an explosive. This approach might have 
reduced the number of false positives. 

Another possibility for the false positives is the presence of nitrogen compounds in the 
soil. For the CRREL RDX/HMX method an ion exchange resin is utilized to remove any 
nitrate prior to analysis. For this reason, as expected, there is no correlation between 
CRREL RDX/HMX results and nitrogen compounds. However, a correlation analysis 
between nitrate/nitrite as nitrogen and ammonia as nitrogen with TNT/DNT detects 
revealed a positive correlation which was significant at a level of confidence of 0.05 
(Appendix E). This indicates that as the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the soil 
increased so did the concentration of TNT/DNT with the CRREL method. A plot of 
ammonia-nitrogen by depth (Figure U) indicates higher concentrations at the ground 
surface and a decrease with depth. Typically, the form of nitrogen present in 
precipitation is as the ammonium ion. The ammonium ion has a tendency to become 
fixed on mineral surfaces and thus does not migrate deeper, although the ammonia- 



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nitrogen can be oxidized to nitrate and nitrate in the soil. A comparison of the TNT/DNT 
CRREL detections by depth indicates the majority of detects occurred in the surface soil 
and that no correlation exists between nitrogen compounds and TNT/DNT results for soil 
samples collected deeper than ten feet bgs. These results suggest nitrogen compounds 
present in the shallow subsurface soil can explain many of the CRREL TNT/DNT false 
positive results. 

Yet another possibility is the potential cross-contamination of samples within the 
laboratory. An Ogden audit of the laboratory on July 28-29, 1 997 noted deficiencies in 
sample handling during CRREL analysis that could result in cross contamination of 
samples and false positives. However, the noted deficiencies were corrected during the 
audit and documented in a formal response dated November 13, 1997. Therefore, 
potential cross-contamination would have only affected a small percentage of the 
samples. 

A final possibility, at least for the RDX/HMX CRREL analysis, is that the detections are 
representative of compounds not being analyzed with EPA Method 8330, such as 
nitroguanidine and nitrocellulose. Thus, positive detects might not indicate the presence 
of RDX/HMX but rather other explosives that can only be detected by the CRREL 
method. This is a possibility at least for the gun positions where propellant bags were 
burned. The bags contain high concentrations of nitrocellulose (triple-based propellants 
containing nitroguanidine were not believed to have been used at Camp Edwards). 

This last hypothesis was evaluated considering the soil data from Areas 16 and 17, the 
medium and high use gun postions. In Area 16 all of the CRREL RDX/HMX results 
were non-detects and only one detect was reported in Area 1 7 at sample location 
BGMAAA. This particular sample did not have detectable levels of DNT or di-n-butyl 
phthalate which are also components of the propellant bags. DNT and di-n-butyl 
phthalate were seen at other sample locations in these two areas. The absence of detects 
with the CRREL RDX/HMX method and the presence of DNT and di-n-butyl phthalate 
would seem to suggest nitrocellulose is not present at these locations. This implies that 
nitrocellulose is more reactive and more completely combusted or more susceptible to 
biodegradation processes. Both processes are consistent with the known properties of 
nitrocellulose. Therefore, it does not seem likely that the false positives with the 
RDX/HMX CRREL method represent the presence of nitrocellulose and the absence of 
RDX/HMX. 

Thus, it is not entirely clear what process was responsible for the false positive results 
with the CRREL analysis. However, it is believed most of the reported detections are the 
result of a combination of low sample concentrations, nitrogen and humic material 
interference, and laboratory cross-contamination. Therefore, it is believed that most of 



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ill 



the reported detects with the CRREL methodology are not indications of true explosive 
soil contamination, except those tested positive with EPA Method 8330. Only those 
samples that had a detection of explosives using EPA Method 8330 are discussed in the 
following sections. 

4.4.2 Explosive Detections by Method 8330 versus Method OM31B 

The SVOC analysis method OM3 1 B is capable of detecting the DNT compounds 2,4- 
DNT and 2,6-DNT in soil. Method OM3 IB utilizes a gas chromatograph/mass 
spectrophotometer (GC/MS) to quantify and identify organic compounds. The 
quantification limit varies, but typically is around 330 ug/kg. In comparison, EPA 
Method 8330 utilizes high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify and 
identify organic explosive compounds. The quantification limit with EPA Method 8330 
varies but is typically lower than the OM3 IB method and is around 120 ug/kg. However, 
in some cases the detection limit for the OM3 1 B method is lower than EPA Method 
8330. The preparatory steps for analysis result in different soil volumes utilized. The 
OM31B methodology requires a 30-gram sample for analysis whereas EPA Method 8330 
utilizes a two-gram sample volume. 

Table 1 1 is a comparison of DNT soil results between the two methods where a detection 
was reported with either the OM3 IB or the EPA Method 8330. Seventeen samples had 
detectable levels of DNT. A total of 460 samples were analyzed with both methods 
yielding no detectable levels of DNT. Thus, between the two methods less than four 
percent of the samples had detectable levels of DNT. 

A review of the data suggests the OM31B method is more robust in detecting low levels 
of explosive compounds than the 8330 method in soils. This difference in analytical 
detection is attributable to the difference in volume sample size and not the analytical 
method. The OM3 1 B analysis method, which requires a larger sample volume, has a 
greater probability of encountering an explosive particle in the soil. However, it should 
be noted the OM31B method is subject to erratic gas chromatographic behavior (EPA, 
1 986). The difference in results most likely can be attributed to the inherent variability of 
the heterogeneous distribution of explosives in soil as demonstrated at other sites 
containing explosives (Crockett et. al., 1998; Crockett et. al., 1996; and Jenkins et. al., 
1 996). Sample variability was considered in the sample design by using composite 
samples. Each of the nine individual samples was approximately 0.25 kg, which were 
thoroughly mixed in a large stainless steel mixing boil. For both methods, a subsample 
of approximately 0.5 kg was sent to the laboratory, upon which another subsample of the 
size indicated above was collected and analyzed. 



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4. 4. 3 Photo Diode Array (PDA) 

The analysis of explosives follows EPA SW-846 Method 8330, which requires analysis 
of environmental samples by HPLC, on a specified analytical column with all potential 
detects confirmed by a distinctly different analytical column. HPLC allows for 
separation of organic compounds based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of 
the compounds. Once these compounds are separated by the analytical column, they pass 
through a cell that has an opening which allows light of a specific wavelength to pass 
through the sample, (an ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer.) As the sample passes 
through the cell, compounds absorb part of the light relative to the concentration of the 
compound in the sample. This is converted electronically to a peak on a chromatograph. 
Under the same chromatographic conditions, a known compound will repeatedly pass 
through the cell at the same time and have the same absorbance. By analyzing the sample 
on a second column, the probability that the peak identified on the first column is the true 
compound is increased and the peak is considered confirmed. However, when multiple 
compounds exist on the primary column, it is highly probably that a peak will confirm 
without being the "true" compound due to the limitations of the method to separate all 
compounds from all matrices all the time. Due to the number of samples that exhibited 
many peaks on the primary column, PDA was added as an enhancement to the method, 
providing another confirmatory step. 

PDA is an instrument option on the detector. It can be turned on at the beginning of a 
sample analysis. It must be turned on for the analysis of the standards as well as the 
samples. The PDA uses all wavelengths of light from 200 to 400 nanometers (nm) to plot 
a spectrum for each compound peak passing through the cell. Each chemical compound 
produces a spectrum characteristic of that compound in the 200 to 400 nm range. A 
different compound will have a different spectrum even though it passes through the cell 
at the same time as the known compound. PDA can be utilized by comparing the 
unknown sample peaks spectrum to the spectrum of a known concentration standard. If 
the two spectra do match, the identification of the compound is further assured. If the 
spectrum do not match, the unknown sample peak is not the same peak as the standard 
peak. At this point, the target compound has been determined to be a nondetect in the 
sample. 

For example, the sample results for G01DOA using EPA Method 8330 indicates the 
presence of PA. However, using PDA the spectra for the compound identified as "PA" 
did not match the standard for PA. Therefore, the sample result for PA in GO 1 DO A was 
qualified with a "U". Additionally, as previously mentioned the drillers grease indicated 
the presence of explosive compounds using EPA Method 8330. However, when the 
sample was analyzed using PDA the explosive compounds were not confirmed and the 
sample results were qualified with a "U". 



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4.4.4 Acetone 

Acetone is a VOC and was detected in numerous samples from all media. Acetone is 
used in the manufacture of explosives, nitrocellulose, paints, varnishes, and lacquers 
(Merck, 1989 and Verschueren, 1983). It has a high evaporation rate and low miscibility 
with water (Krasavage et. al., 1982). Biodegradation is the most important fate-and- 
transport property of acetone (Rathbun et. al., 1982). Acetone is not expected to adsorb 
significantly to sediment or soils. Based on these properties acetone could be expected to 
be present in groundwater but is not likely to be present in soil in the absence of a 
significant source of solvents. 

Acetone is commonly used as a solvent in laboratories for the analysis of organic 
compounds. In particular, acetone is used during the CRREL analysis. The VOC and 
CRREL analytical units were located adjacent to each other at the subcontract laboratory, 
ITS. Further investigation revealed cross-contamination of acetone was occurring 
between these units. Steps were taken midway through the project to identify the source 
and to eliminate and/or reduce the cross-contamination problem in the laboratory. As a 
consequence of the laboratory cross-contamination, numerous samples from all media 
types had detectable levels of acetone. The detections of acetone in all media are 
believed to be the result of laboratory contamination issues and do not reflect site 
conditions. 

A review of the laboratory blank samples revealed numerous detects indicating a possible 
laboratory contamination problem. A total of 73 laboratory blanks had detects of acetone 
at concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ug/kg in soil. EPA (1989) indicates acetone is a 
common laboratory contaminant. EPA Risk Assessment guidance for Superfund 
suggests positive results should only be considered if the concentration of the sample 
exceeds ten times the maximum amount detected in any blank (EPA, 1989). Using this 
criteria, only three out of the 373 detects in soil samples exceed the screening criteria for 
acetone. Given acetone's high volatility, the low organic carbon content of the soil, and 
the extensive laboratory blank contamination the majority of acetone detects are not 
believed to be indicative of site conditions. 

4. 4. 5 Chloroform 

Chloroform or trichloromethane is a VOC and was frequently detected in groundwater 
samples. Chloroform is used in the manufacture of propellants, fumigants, insecticides, 
plastics, and fire extinguishers and is a water disinfectant (Merck, 1989 and Verschueren, 
1983). Chloroform is present in nearly all chlorinated drinking water supplies as a by- 
product of the chlorination process. Chlorinated water from the base supply well was 
used during drilling and for decontamination of field drilling equipment during this study, 



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as described in Section 3. Chloroform is regulated in drinking water with a group of 
compounds called trihalomethanes (THM) which include bromodichloromethane 
(BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform. The MCL for THM 
including chloroform is 100 ug/1. MADEP has established a drinking water guideline of 
5 ug/1 for non-chlorinated water supply. 

Chloroform volatilizes very quickly when exposed to air and easily dissolves into water. 
Trace amounts of chloroform have been found in air throughout the world, even in 
remote regions (Class and Ballschmidter, 1986). The MADEP has established a 
guideline of 0.01 ppb for ambient air an annual average basis. Chloroform is stable in the 
atmosphere but is removed by precipitation. Chloroform is not significantly adsorbed 
onto soils or sediments (Sabljic, 1984). Given chloroform's low adsorption onto soils 
and high volatility it would not be expected to remain in the sandy soil at MMR. It either 
would volatilize to the atmosphere or become dissolved in precipitation and move 
downward as recharge to the aquifer. 

The chloroform groundwater data appear to exhibit a pattern in some groundwater profile 
samples, i.e. low concentration at the top and bottom of the aquifer and higher 
concentrations in the middle, see Section 4.6.1.2. However, if the chloroform is the result 
of areal deposition, then wells the same distance downgradient from the water table 
mound should exhibit a similar pattern. This assumes the rate of groundwater flow is 
relatively constant. There are no known chloroform retardation mechanisms at MMR. 
However, the data don't exhibit any sort of consistent pattern (i.e. chloroform 
concentrations can not be contoured, and appear to be random. The presence of 
chloroform has been noted in many groundwater samples throughout the MMR site 
(AFCEE, 1998 and Hazwrap, 1995), including background samples from this project. 
Another possibility is that the chloroform is from leaking utility lines, however there are 
none that would affect wells in the Impact Area. 

Several other likely sources of chloroform unrelated to site contamination include 
chlorinated water used during decontamination of drilling equipment and chlorinated 
water used in the laboratory. Two water method blank samples and six soil method blank 
samples indicated the presence of chloroform. A review of the equipment rinsate blank 
samples did not indicate the presence of chloroform. 

The chloroform detections in groundwater are believed to reflect actual site conditions 
and are likely a result of atmospheric deposition of chloroform. The evidence indicates 
chloroform is present throughout the Upper Cape in groundwater at low concentrations 
(less than 1 ug/1), including background locations, and thus its presence in groundwater 
samples for the I AGS is not an indicator of Impact Area contamination. The presence of 
chloroform in other media samples, especially soil, is likely the result of laboratory 



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contamination issues and is not believed to be representative of site conditions. 
4. 4. 6 Toluene 

Toluene is a VOC and was detected a number of times in different media samples from 
MMR. Table 12 indicates the media sampled and the number of detects of toluene. 
Toluene is produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil, in 
making coke from coal, and as a by-product in the manufacture of styrene. Toluene is 
used in making paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber 
and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Toluene is also used as a starting 
material in the synthesis of TNT. 

Nearly all toluene entering the environment is released directly to air. Automobile 
emissions are the principal source of toluene in ambient air, with levels fluctuating in 
proportion to automobile traffic. The largest source of emissions is gasoline, which 
typically contains 5-7 percent toluene by weight (Verschueren 1983). In 1978, air 
emissions associated with gasoline use were estimated to be 1 .5 billion pounds, the bulk 
of this was released through automobile exhaust (EPA 1981). Toluene is also a common 
indoor contaminant, and indoor air concentrations are often several times higher than 
outside air. This is believed to be due to release of toluene from common household 
products (paints, paint thinners, adhesives, and nail polish) and from cigarette smoke. 

Toluene does not usually remain in the environment because it is readily broken down to 
other chemicals by microorganisms in soil and evaporates from surface water and surface 
soils. The rate of volatilization from soils depends on temperature, humidity, and soil 
type, but under typical conditions, more than 90 percent of the toluene in the upper soil 
layer volatilizes to air within 24 hours (Balfour et. al. 1984). The rate of toluene transport 
to groundwater depends on the degree of adsorption to soil. The log organic carbon-water 
partition coefficient for toluene is 2.25, which indicates that toluene will be moderately 
retarded by adsorption to soils rich in organic matter, but will be readily leached from 
soils with low organic content (Wilson et al. 1981). In groundwater, microbiological 
processes limit its migration potential. Typical groundwater plumes containing toluene 
are less than 1000 feet long due to rapid biodegradation (Rice et. al. 1995). 

Some occurrences of toluene in groundwater samples could be related to the use of 
gasoline operated air compressors that are used in groundwater sampling. A field audit 
conducted August 5, 1997 found groundwater samples for VOCs were being collected 
from the pump discharge hose at a location where exhaust from the pump's generator 
could potentially cause cross-contamination. However, no groundwater samples 
collected prior to the audit date had detectable levels of toluene, and the situation was 
corrected for later sampling. Therefore, this potential for cross-contamination is 



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considered to be low. 

EPA (1989) indicates toluene is considered to be a common laboratory contaminant. A 
review of the QA/QC data for the IAGS indicates the following detects of toluene: 



• 16 groundwater monitoring well equipment blanks, 

• 3 groundwater profile equipment blanks, 

• 2 deep soil equipment blanks, 

• 2 deep soil trip blanks. 

Because of toluene's fate and transport properties and potential as a laboratory 
contaminant, the detections in the IAGS are unlikely to be an indicator of site conditions. 
The high volatility of toluene and the low organic carbon content of MMR soil preclude 
adsorption onto surface soils, although this would not hold true for sediments. The 
presence of toluene in numerous groundwater equipment blank samples suggests possible 
field contamination. Although toluene is an eventual intermediary byproduct of TNT and 
DNT degradation, the detections of these explosive compounds cannot be correlated with 
the toluene detects in this study. Given toluene's fate and transport properties and the 
presence of laboratory blank contamination, most of the detections of toluene don't 
appear to represent site conditions at MMR. 

4. 4. 7 Trichloro ethylene 

TCE is a VOC and was detected in 30 surface soil samples, four groundwater samples 
from monitoring wells, and four groundwater profile samples. The most important 
environmental fate for TCE is volatilization. The Henry's constant for TCE is 1.17xl0" 2 
atm/m 3 /mol and the vapor pressure is 77 torr at 25 °C (Lyman et. al., 1982). Compounds 
with Henry's constants greater than 10~ 3 will volatilize rapidly. Additionally, TCE is only 
minimally adsorbed to soils and sorption is dependent upon the amount of organic matter 
present. Low organic matter soils such as those at MMR will have only a small tendency 
to bind TCE to the soil. Given the fate and transport properties of TCE it seems unlikely 
that TCE could be present in surface soils. 

Upon more detailed review of the IAGS data, all the TCE detects clustered around 
specific dates of analysis. Upon discussion with the laboratory it was determined that 
possible cross-contamination within the laboratory from another client's samples could 
explain the TCE detects in at least a couple of cases. On October 29, 1997 through 
November 5, 1997 and possibly on November 10, 1997 the laboratory analyzed samples 
from another client having high TCE concentrations. These samples had TCE 
concentrations over the calibration range of the instrument. This could explain nine of 
the 20 TCE detects in soil, or 45 percent. The affected samples include B03IAA, 



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B03OAA, B04DAA, B06BAA, B13DAA, BM6CAD, BM8AAA, BM8BAA, and 
BM8CAA (Table 13). 

4. 4. 8 Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 

BEHP is a SVOC and was detected numerous times in all media samples. BEHP is a 
man-made chemical, commonly added to plastics to make them flexible. Other names for 
this compound include di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dioctyl phthalate. The compound 
di-n-octyl phthalate is a different chemical than BEHP and shouldn't be confused with 
the term dioctyl phthalate. BEHP is widely dispersed in the environment and can be 
released due to desorption from and burning of plastics (Giam et. al., 1975; Hites, 1973; 
and Williams, 1973). Perwak et al (1981) estimates the annual U. S. atmospheric 
emission of BEHP to be 6.5 million pounds. BEHP can be a constituent of landfill 
leachate (Brown and Donnelly, 1988 and Ghassemi et. al., 1984). It has also been 
reported to be present in storm water runoff (Cole et. al., 1984) and in municipally treated 
drinking water (Sheldon and Hites, 1979 and Lucas, 1984). BEHP when released to soil 
usually becomes bound up in the soil and does not migrate to groundwater. Partitioning 
coefficients (K d ) for BEHP have been measured in soil and range from 4.5 x 10" 2 to 5.9 x 
10 -3 (Williams and Hargadine, 1991). 

Phthalates are present in most laboratory equipment and reagents, with BEHP commonly 
found in non-plastic materials such as Teflon™ sheets, aluminum foil, cork, glass wool, 
and treated tap water (EPA, 1988; Giam et al., 1975; and Williams, 1973). Plastic 
laboratory materials containing BEHP include Tygon™, latex, and polyethylene tubing; 
black rubber and neoprene stoppers. Even when care is used to eliminate sources of 
BEHP contamination in the laboratory, spurious peaks are reported in laboratory blanks 
(EPA, 1988 and Giam et. al., 1975). For this reason, EPA Risk Assessment guidance for 
Superfund suggests positive results should only be considered if the concentration of the 
sample exceeds ten times the maximum amount detected in any blank (EPA, 1989). The 
maximum BEHP concentrations in soil and water laboratory method blanks were 230 
ug/kg and 1 1 ug/L. Using the EPA (1989) criteria the screening number for positive 
indication of contamination becomes 2300 ug/kg for soil and 110 ug/1 for groundwater. 
No soil samples from the IAGS exceeded ten times the maximum method blank value, 
however two groundwater samples exceed ten times the method blank level. EPA (1989) 
also acknowledges BEHP is considered to be a common laboratory contaminant. 

BEHP is not used in explosives, although diethylphthalate (3 percent) and di-n- 
butylphthalate (1.5 to 8 percent) are used in propellants (Ogden, 1997b). BEHP has been 
measured at low levels in emissions from propellant combustion tests within a closed 
system (CHPMM, 1998). However, it wasn't determined if the compounds detected, 
including BEHP, were derived from contamination of the equipment, laboratory 



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contamination, or combustion of propellant bags. In any case, using the air emission 
factor for BEHP provided in the CHPMM (1998) report and the annual usage of 
explosives in 1992 (Ogden, 1998b) a calculation can be performed to estimate the 
maximum BEHP concentration that would be expected in soil due to combustion 
operations. A number of assumptions are made in this calculation, as indicated below. 

The air emission factor provided in CHPMM (1998) is 3.8 x 10" 6 and the average usage 
rate of explosive in 1992 was 5160 pounds (Ogden, 1998b). If it is assumed that total 
usage at MMR is 200 times higher than recent usage, an approximate total usage of 
1 ,000,000 pounds is estimated. Multiplying by the air emission factor for BEHP yields 
four pounds of BEHP potentially released to the atmosphere. The area encompassing the 
firing positions can be estimated as 25 acres if it is assumed that each of the nine active 
mortar positions and 1 6 active gun positions are approximately one acre in size. If it is 
assumed air emissions and subsequent air deposition only occurred in the firing areas, and 
BEHP was uniformly distributed over the soil and became mixed in only the top 0.5 feet 
of soil, a maximum concentration in the soil can be estimated. The density of the soil is 
assumed to be 2.65 g/cm 3 (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Dividing the total amount of BEHP 
by the volume of soil and dividing by the density of the soil yields a potential soil 
concentration of 0.4 ug/kg. Given the number of conservative assumptions used in the 
calculations this is likely a maximum number. It seems reasonable the BEHP would have 
been mixed deeper into the soil during the movement of heavy equipment and the likely 
air emissions fallout area is larger. This would result in a decrease in the BEHP 
concentrations expected in the soil. Most of the soil detects from the IAGS were above 
this level, suggesting another source of the BEHP. 

The spatial distribution of detects found during the IAGS would be consistent with a non- 
point Impact Area source, except the concentrations would be expected to decline with 
distance away from the Impact Area. However, the data do not indicate a decline of 
BEHP concentrations with increasing distance from the Impact Area. A probability plot 
analysis of the data suggests one population of data associated with the analytical 
detection limit and a second population presumed to be anomalous detects (Figure V). 

Groundwater samples were collected from the wells in the field through Tygon™ tubing 
offering a possible source for the BEHP contamination. However, equipment rinsate 
blank samples collected in the same manner as the groundwater samples revealed no 
anomalous BEHP levels associated with field sampling activities. Additionally, an 
analysis of the purge time and volume of water purged was compared with the BEHP 
concentration results with no obvious statistical relationship. Thus, the source of the 
BEHP does not appear to be related to the field sampling materials. 

BEHP contamination was evident in the laboratory method blank samples. A total of 18 



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t 



• 



out of 97 laboratory method blanks for water ( 1 9 percent) and nine out of 1 02 laboratory 
method blanks for soil (9 percent) contained BEHP. The BEHP concentrations ranged 
from 0.9 to 1 1 ug/L in water and 17 to 230 ug/kg in soil. Although these findings do not 
explain all of the BEHP detections, it does indicate the potential for random laboratory 
contamination, which is not uncommon (EPA, 1988; EPA, 1989; Giam et. al., 1975; and 
Williams, 1973). Thus, most of the detections of BEHP are not believed to be 
representative of site conditions at MMR. 

A comparison of the original and duplicate samples for the same monitoring wells 
yielded a very poor correlation, possibly suggesting a laboratory analytical problem 
(Figure W). Additionally, the BEHP results in samples W02M1 A and W02M2A were 
not replicated when the same sample was analyzed a second time at a later date, but 
within the holding times. The original samples were reported to contain 10 and 24 ug/L 
of BEHP, respectively. The laboratory found levels of 1 and 7 ug/L upon reanalysis, 
respectively. 

Additionally, comparisons were made between the current IAGS samples collected from 
the CS-19 wells and previously reported results for the CS-19 wells (Jacobs Eng., 1997). 
As indicated in Table 14 there is poor agreement between the BEHP results from the 
current IAGS and the previous results. 

To further evaluate the BEHP issue, the following wells were re-sampled in late May 
1998 and analyzed for BEHP: Bourne 97-3, LRWS 4-1, MW-20S, and MW-17D. These 
wells were selected for re-sampling considering the high concentrations of BEHP 
measured in the original samples. Duplicate samples were collected from MW-20S and 
MW-17D as well as a field blank and equipment rinsate sample. The same materials and 
methods were used during field sampling as was used in earlier sampling events, 
although special care was taken during the sampling activity and laboratory analysis to 
avoid the introduction or contact with material containing BEHP. Additionally, each of 
the samples were submitted to the laboratory with unique sample identifications so the 
identity of the samples were unknown to the laboratory. None of the samples had 
detectable levels of BEHP during the second sampling and analysis. The reportable 
detection limit was 5 ug/L. The previous results for wells Bourne 97-3, LRWS-4-1, MW- 
20S, and MW-17D indicated BEHP concentrations of 97, 100, 280, and 120 ug/L, 
respectively. Thus, the previous BEHP results for at least these four wells appear to be in 
error. Considering the magnitude of the error for these four wells, the BEHP results for 
the other IAGS wells are likely subject to similar cross-contamination problems. 

Finally, samples from the IAGS were compared with EPA split samples (Table 15). A 
non-parametric statistical analysis using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test indicates 
the results are not correlated at a confidence limit of 95 percent. 



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In summary, there is little evidence to indicate the presence of detectable levels of BEHP 
in samples collected during the IAGS is attributable to site-related activities or releases. 
The detectable levels of BEHP are the result of internal laboratory contamination 
problems. Therefore, reported detects of BEHP for all media presented throughout this 
report should be viewed with the above discussion in mind. 

4. 4. 9 Di-n-butyl Phthalate and Diethyl Phthalate 

Di-n-butyl phthalate is a common laboratory contaminant, although benzylbutyl 
phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate can also be problematic (Smith, 
1995). Smith (1995) reports that di-n-butyl phthalate is present in common laboratory 
equipment such as sodium sulfate, glass wool, paper towel, filter paper, and laboratory 
gloves. Diethyl phthalate also has been detected in silastic tubing (Smith, 1995). 
However, both of these phthalates are also ingredients in propellants, at levels of 1.5 to 8 
percent (Ogden, 1 997b), and so cannot be ruled out as present solely from laboratory 
contamination. 

Di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in three laboratory method blanks for soil, seven 
equipment rinsates, and two water field blanks. Diethyl phthalate was detected in four 
laboratory method blank samples for soil, ten equipment rinsates, and one water field 
blank. The maximum soil concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate 
detected were 43 and 37 ug/kg, respectively. If the (EPA, 1989) criteria often times the 
maximum amount detected in any blank is used, then the threshold for determining the 
presence of soil contamination is 430 and 370 ug/kg for di-n-butyl phthalate and diethyl 
phthalate. Using this criterion, no diethyl phthalate levels are above the threshold often 
times the blank contamination level. In the case of di-n-butyl phthalate, six soil samples 
exceed this value, three of which are in GP-16 and GP-17, a likely source of explosive 
propellant. Given the site history at GP-16 and GP-17 and the presence of explosive 
constituents, the levels of di-n-butyl phthalate at GP-16 and GP-17 likely represent actual 
soil conditions and indicate an anthropogenic input. 

4.4.10 Comparison of EPA and NGB Split Samples 

The analytical results developed by the NGB were compared against split samples 
collected and analyzed by the EPA. Results reported by the two laboratories are 
summarized in Table 16. For the most part the results of both laboratories were in 
agreement for VOCs, SVOCs, and explosives. No pesticides, herbicides, or EDB were 
detected in the EPA split samples. The only well common to both data sets that had 
pesticides in the NGB sample was FS12-90WT0012. There was some disagreement on 
BEHP as discussed earlier in Section 4.4.8. The only difference in explosive results was 



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at well MW-27. The EPA laboratory reported a RDX result of 0.67 ug/L whereas the 
NGB reported a non-detect with a reportable quantitation limit of 0.25 ug/L. The original 
profile sample for this same location indicated RDX at a concentration of 0.30 ug/L. 

4.5 Soil Samples 

This subsection presents results for soil samples. Results are grouped by the sampling 
"areas" designated in the FSPs. The locations of these areas are indicated in Figure A. 
The areas are presented in the following order: 

• background locations (Areas 4 1 and 42), to facilitate a comparison to background; 

• an overall summary for all of the areas; and 

• numerical order for the soil sampling areas (Areas 1-22) 

Table 1 7 summarizes the locations of each numbered investigation area, associated 
features, and media sampled in each area. The "Sites" indicated in Table 1 7 are taken 
from aerial photograph references (ERI, 1994). The designation of Area 24 was 
originally assigned to a drainage swale on the southeast side of the Impact Area. During 
field reconnaissance, the drainage swale in the area northwest of Snake Pond was 
identified as Bypass Bog, which had been separately identified for sampling as Area 37. 
The designation of Area 37 was retained for Bypass Bog, and the designation of Area 24 
was not used during the I AGS. The designation of Area 38 was originally assigned to a 
control area for the gun positions. Control areas for the gun positions were later 
established in the vicinity of each position, so that the designation of Area 38 was not 
used during the I AGS. 

Detected compounds in each area are indicated on the figures for that area, contained in 
Volume 2. The first two digits of each figure number correspond with the area, and the 
last digit corresponds with the analyte group (l=explosive, 2=inorganic, 3=VOC, 
4=SVOC, 5=pesticide/herbicide). For example, the explosive detects for Area 1 are on 
Figure 1-1. If an analyte map is not included in the figures in Volume 2, there were no 
detects of that analyte. Photographs for each Area are provided in Appendix A. 

The figures for each area are shown on a background that consists of an aerial 
photograph. The dates of these photographs are indicated in the figure legend, and older 
photos were selected as needed to illustrate historic features that were intended to be 
sampled. In many cases with the older photographs, it appears that the existing roadways 
shown in red are offset slightly from the historic roads indicated on the aerial photograph. 
This inconsistency results from photo registration error and possibly distortion. In most 
cases the shift is minor and the photo still provides useful reference information. 



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Summaries of the detected compounds, their ranges of concentrations, and the numbers of 
detections exceeding proposed background criteria are provided in separate tables for 
each soil sampling area, including tables for all of the areas combined. Each area or 
group of areas has two tables of detections: for surface soil samples (0-0.5 feet bgs), and 
for subsurface soil samples (1.5-2 feet). These tables also list the total number of samples 
and the number of rejects. Note that the count of "samples" includes duplicates, 
dilutions, and re-extractions of a field sample, but does not include any samples for which 
the analyte result was rejected. Also, the count of "rejects" includes data rejected for any 
reason, not solely due to QA/QC issues. As an example, consider a field sample and field 
duplicate for which a dilution is required to measure an analyte within the calibration 
range. This single sample location would then have a count of two "samples" (the 
dilution results that are not rejected) and two "rejects" (the undiluted samples that exceed 
calibration range) on the summary tables. 

4. 5. 1 Background (Areas 41 and 42) 

Background samples are intended to document conditions at the MMR site unaffected by 
activities from the Impact Area and Training Ranges, known contaminant plumes, or 
source areas. A FSP (Ogden, 1997p) for two background sampling areas was approved 
by EPA and MADEP; Shawme-Crowell State Forest located north of MMR, and Four 
Ponds Conservation Area in Bourne located west of MMR. Ten surface and nine 
subsurface samples were collected at the Shawme-Crowell State Forest, and 1 1 surface 
and subsurface samples were taken from the Four Ponds Conservation Area. A total of 21 
"surface" (0-0.5 feet bgs) and 20 "subsurface" (1.5-2 feet bgs) soil samples were collected 
from the two locations. 

The majority of the Shawme-Crowell State Forest appears to be a high public use area 
with a high density of campgrounds and nearby residential housing. However, the areas 
of the forest sampled are located immediately south of the "Area 2 Campground", which 
is relatively undisturbed (Photograph 1). The Four Ponds Conservation Area in Bourne 
appears to have been less heavily used by the public compared to the State Forest, and 
there no established camp sites at this location. The sampling locations are in an area 
away from the hiking trail that does not appear to be disturbed (Photograph 2). 

The background data were used to establish a "benchmark" concentration using a method 
recommended in the MMR Risk Assessment Handbook (HAZWRAP, 1994). The 
benchmark may be used for comparison to individual sample results from the Impact 
Area and Training Ranges to determine how likely it is that samples taken in the study 
area could be explained as resulting from a background condition. 

HAZWRAP (1994) specifies the use of tolerance limits as a background comparison. A 



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tolerance limit is the value (in this case a concentration) in a population distribution that 
"covers" a specified proportion of expected values. For instance, 90 percent of the values 
in a distribution would be equal to or lower than the 90 percent upper tolerance limit 
(UTL). Alternatively, it could be said that there would be no more than a 10 percent 
chance of finding a value higher than the 90 percent UTL that was part of the same 
distribution of data. Therefore, if a site sample concentration were greater than the 
specified upper tolerance limit, there might be a better chance that some other explanation 
for the presence of the analyte (i.e., an environmental release) than assigning it to 
background. The Background Workplan specified a 90 percent coverage be used for 
defining background benchmarks. This value was calculated at the 95 percent confidence 
level to establish the UTLs. 

Tolerance limits are calculated based on assumptions about how data are distributed and 
it was therefore necessary to determine the "fit" of data to various distribution types (i.e., 
normal or log-normal) distributions. This fitting was only done on analytical results that 
were above the reporting limit in a majority of the samples, because it would be difficult 
to establish a distribution when many values are below a reporting limit (one does not 
know what concentration to assign to these samples). In the case of the soil samples, a 
minimum frequency of detection of 7 1 percent was applied, as was done in establishing 
the background benchmarks reported in IRP (1994). The practical outcome of this 
specification is that compounds detected at rates less than 7 1 percent have no benchmarks 
and essentially would be assumed to be above background if they are detected above the 
reporting limit. This is reasonable as a screening tool, but may become problematic in 
the case where compounds are detected onsite at a rate equivalent to that observed in the 
background data set. In this event, it would be advisable to consider additional statistical 
analysis. 

A description of the statistical evaluation of soil background data and results is provided 
in Appendix F. A summary of the compounds detected in the background soil samples, 
with frequency of detection and estimated UTL (where appropriate), is given in Table 18. 
Detected compounds are also shown on concentration maps in Figures 41-2, 41-3, 41-4, 
and 41-5 for Shawme-Crowell State Forest, and 42-2, 42-4, and 42-5 for the Four Ponds 
Conservation Area. 



4. 5. 2 Summary of all A re as 

A total of 270 surface soil samples (0-0.5 feet bgs) and 457 subsurface soil samples 
(greater than 0.5 feet bgs) were collected and analyzed, for a total of 727 soil samples. 
Summary statistics for these samples are provided in Table 19 for surface soil, and Table 
20 for subsurface soil, and are discussed by analyte group in the following paragraphs. 



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Detections exceeding background for these samples are illustrated in the figures for each 
area (e.g., Figures 1-1 to 1-5, 2-1 to 2-5, etc.). Photographs for each area are provided in 
Appendix A. 

Detections of explosives described in this section and proceeding sections are based 
solely on the results of analyses performed using EPA Method 8330. As described in 
Section 4.4.1, the detections of explosives obtained using the CRREL screening methods 
are generally believed to represent false positives. The CRREL results are not included 
on the figures for this section, although they are included in the tables summarizing 
detections using the method names of "8515" (HMX/RDX) and "CRRSCT" (TNT/DNT). 

Explosive compounds were detected in 23 out of 200 surface soil samples (12 percent), 
including samples from Areas 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 1 1, 12, 16, and 17. No explosives were 
detected in soil at Areas 3, 4, 8-10, 13-15, or 18-22. Most of the explosive detections in 
soil (16 out of 23) were observed at Areas 12 (Demo Area 1), 16 (GP-16), and 17 (GP-7). 
The principal compounds detected at these three areas were 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT at 
Areas 16 and 17, and RDX, HMX, 2A-DNT, and 4A-DNT at Area 12. PETN was the 
compound detected most frequently in other areas (four times). Explosive compounds 
were also detected in four subsurface (18-24 inch) samples from Areas 12, 13 (Demo 
Area 2), and 17. RDX was detected at Area 12 at a depth of 10-14 feet bgs. Explosive 
compounds have not been detected in soil deeper than 14 feet bgs. TNT has not been 
detected in any soil samples. 

Inorganic compounds including metals, cyanide, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate/nitrite- 
nitrogen, and phosphate-phosphorous were detected in all of the soil samples. 
Concentrations exceeding the proposed background levels were detected most frequently 
for manganese (63 percent exceeded background), copper (45 percent), potassium (43 
percent), cobalt (39 percent), chromium (31 percent), magnesium (29 percent), and 
calcium (16 percent). Generally there was no observable pattern of detections with 
respect to sampling areas. 

VOCs were detected in 95 surface soil samples, 34 samples from 1 .5-2 feet bgs, and 1 1 
samples deeper than 2 feet bgs. Acetone was the most commonly detected compound, 
accounting for 41 percent of the surface soil detections and 65 percent of the subsurface 
soil detections. Methylene chloride, TCE, and chloroform together accounted for 49 
percent of the surface soil detections and 15 percent of the subsurface soil detections. 
The potential for occurrence of these compounds as laboratory contaminants is discussed 
in Section 4.4. Generally there was no observable pattern of detections with respect to 
sampling areas. 

SVOCs were detected in 104 surface soil samples, 15 samples from 1.5-2 feet bgs, and 24 



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samples deeper than 2 feet bgs. BEHP was the most commonly detected compound, 
accounting for 15 percent of the surface soil detections and 36 percent of the subsurface 
soil detections. The other detected SVOCs generally belong to two classes of 
compounds: PAHs and phthalates. The PAHs as a group accounted for 62 percent of the 
surface soil detections and 33 percent of the subsurface soil detections, with pyrene, 
fluoranthene, and chrysene accounting for the majority of these detections. The other 
phthalates detected aside from BEHP were diethyl phthalate (five percent each of the 
surface and subsurface detections) and di-n-butyl phthalate (nine percent of the surface 
soil detections and 12 percent of the subsurface soil detections). The potential for 
occurrence of BEHP as a laboratory contaminant is discussed in Section 4.4.8. 

Pesticides were detected in 1 12 surface soil samples, 14 samples from 1.5-2 feet bgs, and 
four samples deeper than 2 feet bgs. 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT account for 84 percent of 
the surface soil detections and 63 percent of the subsurface soil detections, and were 
present in the background samples as described in Section 4.5.1. Approximately 8 
percent of the surface soil detections and 27 percent of the subsurface soil detections of 
4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE were above the proposed background concentrations. Three 
different PCBs were detected one time each, in surface soil samples from Areas 16 and 
17. 

Herbicides were detected in 70 surface soil samples, one sample from 1.5-2 feet bgs, and 
ten samples from deeper than 2 feet bgs. MCPA accounts for 64 percent of the detections 
in surface soil and 40 percent of the detections in subsurface soil, and was present in the 
background samples as described in Section 4.5.1. None of the MCPA detections were 
above the proposed background concentration. MCPP, 2,4,5-T, and dicamba were the 
next most commonly detected in surface soil, each accounting for about seven percent of 
the detections. These three compounds were also detected in background samples, 
although not at frequencies that were high enough to allow calculation of background 
concentrations. MCPP and 2,4,5-T accounted for about 15 percent of the detections of 
herbicides in subsurface soil. 

4.5.3 Area 1 

Area 1 is located in the topographic depression north of Five Corners, where Wood Road 
intersects Turpentine Road. Area 1 is comprised of two focal areas as illustrated in the 
FSP (Ogden, 1997h): 

• A topographic depression with ground scarring and impact craters as seen in aerial 
photographs from 1958 and 1991 (ERI, 1994). A vehicle trail around the northern 
and western sides of the depression, and a cleared area east of the depression on 
Pocasset Road, are also visible in these photographs. There is no historical 



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• 



information regarding target types or munitions fired into this area. There are no 
visible targets within the depression. The estimated size of this area is nine acres. 
The area is completely vegetated at this time (Photographs 3, 5, 6, 7, 8) 

A ground scar on the north side of Wood Road that is apparent in aerial photographs 
from 1966 and 1977. The estimated size of this area is 0.5 acre. The ground scar is 
on a level area which drops off steeply to the topographic depression described above. 
Information from interviews suggests that the ground scar may have been used to 
stage trucks to dump material into the topographic depression. A clear area is still 
visible in the western portion of the level area (Photograph 4). 

Eleven surface soil grids and one boring completed as a monitoring well nest were used 
to sample these focal areas. Samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Boring 3 was installed at the lowest topographic point and near the center of Area 1 . 
The unsaturated and saturated zones were sampled as described in Section 3, and the 
boring was completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-3S) and deep 
(MW-3D) groundwater well. A second boring was later completed without sampling 
to install two intermediate depth wells (MW-3M1 and MW-3M2). The area was well 
vegetated prior to clearing the drill pad. 

2. Grids 01 A, 01B, and 01C were located to sample the southernmost topographic 
depression. These were positioned along the roadway that was constructed to reach 
boring 3. This area was well vegetated and appeared to have several old impact 
craters (Photograph 3). 

3. Grids 01D and 01 E were located to sample the northern portion of the topographic 
depression. These grids were positioned on the sides of the drill pad for boring 3. 
These areas were well vegetated (Photograph 4). 

4. Grids OIF, 01 G and 01 H were located to sample the former clearing along the 
northern edge of Wood Road. The area is largely vegetated, although grid 01 H was 
in a cleared area (Photograph 5). 

1 . Grids 011 and 01 J were located in cratered depressions along the northern side of the 
topographic depression. The area was well vegetated (Photographs 6 and 7). 

2. Grid 01K was located east of the topographic depression in an area with no known 
impacts, as a "control" grid. The area was well vegetated (Photograph 8). 



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Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 1-1 to 1-5, and complete results 
(including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from an aerial photograph taken in February, 1966. EPA and NGB selected this 
photograph from among several photographs taken between 1 943 and 1 99 1 since it shows 
the most features of interest for this area. Although the 1966 photo does not show the 
topographic depressions in this area, topography is indicated on the figures by the 
contours obtained from MassGIS. 

Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent on the 1 966 photo as snow cover. Note 
that portions of Area 1 extending west from Pocasset Road appear to be cleared or 
sparsely vegetated based on the extent of snow cover. Grid 01 J appears to fall within this 
historic clearing near the center of Area 1 . Grids 1 F-0 1 H appear to be within the 
clearing along Wood Road. Most of the clearing apparent in the 1966 photo does not 
appear to be disturbed in earlier (1963) or later (1977) historic photos. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 21 for surface soil 
and Table 22 for subsurface soil. PETN was detected at grid Oil (0-6 inch), and grid 01 A 
(0-6 inch) had detections of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT), and 
HMX. Fifteen metals were detected above proposed background levels, most commonly 
copper and potassium. Cyanide was detected in boring 3 at 0-6 inches bgs. Acetone was 
detected in a majority of the surface soil samples. PAHs, phthalates, and phenol were the 
only SVOCs detected, in grids 01 A, 01G, and 01H. Di-n-butyl phthalate was found in 
surface soil at grids 01 G and 01H in the former cleared area along Wood Road, and 
pyrene and fluoranthene were also found in grid 01H. Phenol and BEHP were present in 
grid 01 A. 4,4' -DDT and 4,4' -DDE were the only pesticides detected, although they were 
not present above proposed background levels. PCBs were not detected. The herbicides 
MCPP and pentachlorophenol were detected at boring 3, dicamba was detected at grids 
01 A, 01D, and 01E, and MCPA was detected at grids IE, 011, and 01 J. 

The compounds detected in Area 1 soil are generally similar to those detected elsewhere 
in the Impact Area. Dicamba was detected at a higher frequency for Area 1 than is 
typical at the other areas. Dicamba has been detected in background samples, although 
not at a frequency that allows calculation of background levels. 

4.5.4 Area 2 

Area 2 is located south of the Five Corners area and has features on either side of 
Turpentine Road. Area 2 is comprised of three focal areas as illustrated in the FSP 
(Ogden, 1997i). 

• A historic target area located on and to the west of Turpentine Road that currently 



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contains at least three targets (cars, buoy, and set of drums). In older historical aerial 
photographs, this appears as a consistently scarred area. Impact craters can often be 
discerned. A circular cleared area first appears in a 1951 aerial photo (ERI, 1994). In 
a 1 977 aerial photo the area had begun to revegetate. There is no historical 
information regarding target types or munitions fired into this area. The estimated 
size of this area is 1 1 acres. Currently the area is heavily cratered and vegetated 
(Photograph 9). 

• An area identified in aerial photographs from 1958 as a burnt vegetation area (ERI, 
1994). The area lies immediately to the south of the target area described above. The 
burnt vegetation area was no longer discernible in a 1963 aerial photo. The estimated 
size of this area is one acre. Currently the area is well vegetated (Photograph 10). 

• An area to the east of Turpentine Road identified as Site 3 (ERI, 1994). This 
rhomboid-shaped area appears to be newly cleared in aerial photographs from 1963. 
Three trenches are apparent in the 1 963 photograph. Antennas are also apparent at 
the center of the area. The area is still clear in 1965 photos. However, vegetation has 
been reestablished in this area in a 1977 photo. A pile of white material was 
identified at the southern tip of the area in a 1991 aerial photograph (ERI, 1994). The 
estimated size of this area is eight acres. Currently the area is well vegetated 
(Photographs 11, 12, 13). 

These focal areas were sampled by a total of fifteen surface soil grids and two soil 
borings completed as a monitoring well nest and a single monitoring well (Ogden, 1997i). 
Samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Boring 2 was installed in the historic target area near the center of Area 2. The 
unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring was 
completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-2S) and deep (MW-2D) 
monitoring well. A second boring was later completed without sampling to install 
two intermediate depth wells (MW-2M1 and MW-2M2). During UXO clearance 
activities, approximately 200 inert rockets were excavated in the immediate vicinity 
of boring 2. This area was well vegetated prior to clearing the drill pad (Photograph 
9). 

2. Grids 02 A, 02B, 02C, 02D and 02 E were located to sample the historic target area in 
the vicinity of the cars, buoys and drums. The grids were located just south of the 
well pad constructed for MW-2. Grids 02 A and 02D were located in cratered areas. 
Grids 02B, 02C and 02E were located adjacent to former targets: the drums, buoy, 
and cars, respectively. The area had completely revegetated by the time of sampling 
(Photograph 9). Impact craters were quite numerous in this area, and several UXO 



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were identified during clearance activities. 

3. Grids 02F, 02G, 02H, 021, and 02 J were located to sample the historic burnt 
vegetation area south of boring 2. These grids run west to east and were designed to 
intersect with the historic burnt vegetation area, which runs northeast to southwest in 
this area. The area has numerous impact craters and is completely vegetated 
(Photograph 10). 

4. Boring 26 was installed in the area identified as Site 3 to the east of Turpentine Road. 
The unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring was 
completed as a water table monitoring well (MW-26S). 

5. Grids 02K, 02L, 02M, 02N and 02O) were located in Site 3 on the eastern side of 
Turpentine Road. Grids 02K (Photograph 11) and 02L (Photograph 12) were located 
in low spots which appear to be the trenches identified in the 1963 aerial photo. Grids 
02M through 02O were designed to traverse the historic cleared area from north to 
south, and grid 02O was also designed to be located in an area of white material 
identified in the 1991 aerial photo. However, this white material was not identified in 
the field, and grids 02M through 02O (Photograph 13) were placed in areas believed 
to represent the historic cleared area (which is no longer visible). All of Site 3 is well 
vegetated. 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 2-1 to 2-5, and complete results 
(including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from an aerial photograph taken in February 1966. EPA and NGB selected this 
photograph from among photographs taken between 1943 and 1991 since it shows the 
most features of interest for this area. 

Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent on the 1 966 photo as snow cover. The 
circular clearing on the west side of Turpentine Road appears to be partially revegetated 
in the 1 966 photo, but Site 3 to the east appears to be largely clear. Grids 02 A through 
02E appear to have been placed near the center of the circular clearing. The burnt 
vegetation area to the south is not visible in this photo. At Site 3, only grids 02L and 
02M are well within the clearing; 02K is near the edge (though in a low spot as 
proposed), and 02N and 02O are approximately 250 feet away to the east and south. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 23 for surface soil 
and Table 24 for subsurface soil. PA was detected at grid 02H at 0-0.5 feet bgs, and 
PETN was detected at 0-0.5 feet bgs at grid 02L. Sixteen metals were detected above 
proposed background levels, most commonly copper and manganese. Acetone was 
detected in a majority of the shallow subsurface (1.5-2 feet bgs) soil samples, and at 0-0.5 



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B 3 ■ B 



feet bgs at grid 02N and 10-12 feet bgs at boring 26. Several other VOCs were 
occasionally detected in surface (0-0.5 feet bgs) soil, including chloroform, methylene 
chloride, toluene, and TCE. EDB and MTBE were both detected in surface soil at grid 
02J. PAHs and phthalates were the only SVOCs detected, and they were distributed 
throughout approximately half of the surface soil sample locations. Di-n-butyl phthalate 
and diethyl phthalate were each detected at one surface soil location, and BEHP was 
detected at five locations (four surface soil grids and at 10-12 feet bgs in boring 26). 
4,4' -DDT and 4,4 '-DDE were widely distributed in surface and shallow subsurface soil, 
however only 4,4' -DDE was detected at concentrations above background levels (at four 
grids). No other pesticides and no PCBs were detected. MCPA was detected twice, but 
neither level was above the proposed background levels. Picloram was detected once in 
surface soil at grid 02G. 

The compounds detected in Area 2 soil are generally similar to those detected elsewhere 
in the Impact Area. 

4.5.5 Area 3 

Area 3 is immediately to the northeast of the intersection of Turpentine Road and Tank 
Alley. Area 3 is comprised of three focal areas as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden 1997j). 

• An historic circular cleared area approximately 600 feet in diameter, which was a 
historic target area identified as Site 1 (ERI, 1994). This area is visible in aerial 
photographs from 1951 to 1971. Material appears to be piled within this circular area 
in rows and burning appears to have taken place in this area in 1951 according to the 
aerial photographic analysis. A possible pit is indicated within the circular area in the 
1951 aerial photo, but is no longer visible in a 1958 photo. Material is piled in a 
cleared area east of the circular target in the 1951 aerial photo. The estimated size of 
the historic circular cleared area is 6.5 acres. There is no historical information 
regarding target types or munitions fired into this area. Currently the area is well 
vegetated (Photograph 16). 



• 



The targets located along Tank Alley and Turpentine Road. These targets are 
currently listed by Range Control as targets for artillery or mortar fire. Therefore, this 
area is expected to have a relatively high percentage of exploded and unexploded 
ordnance, compared to other areas. Approximately eleven vehicles, including tanks, 
armored personnel carriers, and cars are located along this 1200-foot portion of Tank 
Alley and 900-foot portion of Turpentine Road. The vehicles are visible in a 1 977 
photograph and served as targets. The estimated size of this area is 1.5 acres. A 1991 
aerial photo shows the areas as heavy impact zones. Currently the area is slightly 
vegetated (Photographs 14 and 15). 



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• A pit located 215 feet north of Tank Alley and 950 feet east of Turpentine Road. The 
pit is visible in aerial photographs since 1951. The pit is approximately 60 x 30 x 15 
feet (L x W x D). Currently the area is vegetated (Photograph 17). 

These focal areas were sampled by a total of fifteen surface soil grids and one soil boring 
completed as a monitoring well nest (Ogden, 1997j). Samples were collected at the 
following locations: 

1. Boring 1 was installed at the intersection of Turpentine Road and Tank Alley. The 
unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring was 
completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-1S), intermediate depth 
(MW-1M1), and deep (MW-1D) monitoring well. A second boring was later 
completed without sampling to install an intermediate depth well (MW-1M2). This 
area was heavily cratered and moderately vegetated prior to clearing the drill pad. 

2. Soil sampling grids 03 A, 03B, and 03C were located on Turpentine Road. Grids 03A 
and 03 B were located adjacent to vehicles used as targets. Grid 03 A was located 
within 20 feet of an armored personnel carrier which had a large pile of spent 
munitions stacked inside and beside it. Grid 03 C was located in a crater to the east of 
Turpentine Road. This portion of Site 1 was heavily cratered. Many magnetic 
anomalies and UXO were identified in this area. The area was generally slightly 
vegetated (Photograph 14). 

3. Soil sampling grids 03D, 03E, 03F, 03G, 03H, and 031 were located at evenly spaced 
intervals in the center of Tank Alley. Grids 03E, 03F, 03H and 031 were also located 
next to tanks that had been used as targets. Many magnetic anomalies and UXO were 
identified in this area. Tank Alley was cratered and slightly vegetated (Photograph 
15). 

4. Grids 03 J, 03K, 03L, 03M, and 03N were located in the middle of the 600-foot 
diameter former cleared area. The area was well vegetated and heavily cratered 
(Photograph 16). 

5. Grid 03O was located in the bottom of the 60 x 30-foot pit north of Tank Alley. The 
pit is steep sided, relatively flat at the bottom, and vegetated (Photograph 17). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 3-2 to 3-5, and complete results 
(including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in February 1966. EPA and NGB selected this photography 
from among photos between 1943 and 1991 as showing the most features of interest for 



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_; &l _K _V && ■_ _______ ^^^^^^^ 



this area. 

Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent on the 1966 photo as snow cover. The 
large circular area in Site 1, northeast of the intersection of Turpentine Road and Tank 
Alley, is still visible in the 1966 photo, although there appears to be some growth of 
vegetation of this area. Grids 03 J through 03N were located near the center of this 
historic clearing. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 25 for surface soil 
and Table 26 for subsurface soil. No explosives were detected at soil sampling locations. 
Sixteen metals were detected at concentrations above background, most commonly 
copper and manganese. TCE was detected in soil samples collected from 0-0.5 feet bgs 
at grids 031 and 03 O, and methylene chloride was also detected at grid 031. Semi volatile 
compounds (PAHs and phthalates) were detected at grids 03 E, 03 F, 03 K and 03 O and 
boring 1 . PAHs including benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, 
benzo(g,h,i)perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, 
fluoranthene, indeno(l,2,3-cd)pyrene, and pyrene were all detected at the western end of 
Tank Alley in grids 03E, 03F and boring 1 . Phthalates detected include BEHP (grids 03F 
and 03O and boring 1), di-n-butylphthalate (grid K and boring 1), and diethylphthalate 
(boring 1). Pesticide and herbicide compounds were detected at most of the soil sampling 
locations. The compounds 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE and MCPA were the most prevalent 
pesticides and herbicide in Area 3, although only two detections of 4,4'-DDE (grids 03M 
and 03N) exceeded proposed background levels. In the 600-foot diameter circular area, 
alpha-BHC was detected at four grids, and beta-BHC, delta-BHC, and gamma-BHC were 
each detected at one grid. 2,4,5-T was detected in surface soil at two grids. Bentazon, 
chloramben, dicamba, and alpha endosulfan were each detected at one grid location in 
surface soil. 

The compounds detected in Area 3 soil are similar to those detected elsewhere in the 
Impact Area, although detections of PAHs and the BHC-based pesticides appear to be at 
a relatively higher frequency compared to other areas sampled. 

4.5.6 Area 4 

Area 4 is located near the middle of Tank Alley in the J-l Range. This range had firing 
positions southeast of the Impact Area, near Greenway Road, in what has been identified 
as Area 5 (see Section 4.5.7). Area 4 includes the target end of the 2,000-meter range. 
Area 4 is composed of two focal areas as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1997k): 

• One focal area encompasses the two earthen mounds. The smaller mound closest to 
the firing position is approximately 120 x 70 feet (0.2 acres). A tank is located 



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between this mound and the firing position. The larger mound farthest from the firing 
position is approximately 270 x 100 feet (0.6 acres). The mounds are visible in aerial 
photographs from 1 963 to 1 99 1 . The mounds appear to be backstops for targets that 
were fired upon from the 2,000-meter J- 1 range located to the southeast. In addition, 
the tank located between the small mound and the firing position, and the large 
mound itself, are listed as targets for artillery and mortar fire by Range Control. The 
larger mound is currently unvegetated, and the smaller mound is vegetated 
(Photographs 18 and 19). 

• The second focal area consists of a topographic depression south of the mounds on 
the south side of Tank Alley. This area is approximately 0.1 acre in size. An aerial 
photograph from 1971 indicates that liquid is visible in this depression after a 
significant rainfall. The limited vegetation currently in this area suggests that it 
receives surface water runoff (Photograph 20). 

These focal areas were sampled by a total of eleven soil grids and one soil boring 
completed as a water table monitoring well (Ogden, 1997k). Samples were collected at 
the following locations: 

1. Boring 27 was installed immediately downgradient of Area 4. The unsaturated zone 
was sampled as described in Section3, and the boring was completed as a water table 
(MW-27S) monitoring well. The area cleared for the well pad was heavily cratered. 
This area was well vegetated. 

2. Grids 04A, 04B, 04C, 04D, and 04E were located along the line of fire from the J-l 
range towards the earthen mounds. Grid 04A (Photograph 1 8) was located on the top 
of the large earthen mound. Grid 04B was located at the southeastern base of the 
large mound in an area that may have received surface runoff from the portion of the 
large mound used as a target area. Both of these areas were unvegetated. There were 
many shell casings and UXO in this area. Grid 04C was located at the northwestern 
base of the small mound. The area was located in an area free of vegetation. Grid 
04E was located at the top of the smaller mound (Photograph 19) and was well 
vegetated. Grid 04D was located at the southeastern base of the small mound in an 
area that may have received surface runoff from the portion of the small mound used 
as a target area. This area was adjacent to a tank that is listed by Range Control as a 
target for artillery and mortar fire. 

3. Grid 04F was located in a low area on the south side of Tank Alley. The area was not 
vegetated and had visible evidence that it received surface runoff. The area included 
several craters (Photograph 20). 



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4. Grid 04G was located northeast of the mounds, in an area that was not expected to be 
affected by direct firing on the mounds, as a control grid. The area was vegetated and 
slightly cratered, and UXO clearance identified many magnetic anomalies 
(Photograph 21). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 4-2 to 4-5, and complete results 
(including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in 1986. EPA and NGB selected this photography from 
among photos between 1943 and 1991 as showing the most features of interest for this 
area. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent on the photo as light areas. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 27 for surface soil 
and Table 28 for subsurface soil. No explosive compounds were detected in Area 4. 
Fifteen metals were detected at concentrations exceeding proposed background levels, 
with potassium and manganese most frequently above proposed background levels. Three 
VOC compounds were detected in Area 4: acetone was widely detected, and chloroform 
and TCE were detected in surface (0-6 inch) soil at grid 04D. Phthalates (BEHP and 
diethyl phthalate) were the only SVOCs detected in Area 4. Alpha-BHC was the only 
pesticide detected (10-12 feet bgs in boring 27). The herbicides 2,4,5-T, MCPA, 
bentazon, and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid were detected in surface (0-6 inch) soil samples at 
grids 04B, 04C, 04D, 04E, and 04G. 

The compounds detected in Area 4 are generally similar to those detected elsewhere in 
the Impact Area, with the exception of herbicides. The detection frequency of 2,4,5-T 
was higher in this area than in other study areas, and the two detections of 3,5- 
dichlorobenzoic acid accounted for half of all detections in the study. The compound 
2,4,5-T was detected in background samples, although not at a frequency allowing 
calculation of background levels. 

Radiological surveys were performed at Areas 4 and 5, as described in Section 3. All of 
the soil sampling grids in Area 4 were surveyed. Counts of alpha and beta-gamma 
radiation are summarized in Table 29. No detects of alpha or beta/gamma radiation were 
evident for any of the soil sampling locations during Survey 3. The ground conditions 
during this survey generally consisted of frozen ground or areas of unfrozen ground 
saturated with water. Earlier surveys (Surveys 1 and 3) indicated possible detections of 
alpha radiation at several locations. However, the instrument used for the surveys was 
later found to be malfunctioning due to both a tear in the Mylar™ probe face, and an 
electrical short circuit in the cable connecting the probe and meter. Survey 3 was 
conducted using a new instrument. 



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ISs A 



4. 5. 7 Area 5 

Area 5 is located along the eastern end of Tank Alley in the J-l Range. Area 5 includes a 
2,000-meter range, a 1,000-meter range, a 150-meter range, and a 100-meter range. The 
2,000-meter range ends in the Impact Area at Area 4, and this end of the 2,000-meter 
range was investigated separately (see Section 4.5.6). Structures on-site were identified 
with the help of a schematic diagram (Ogden, 1998a). All structures on the schematic 
were identified on-site with the exception of two bunkers and four storage buildings. 
Eleven focal areas were identified in Area 5 as illustrated in the FSP (1998a): 

• An earthen mound, approximately 130 x 70 feet and 30 feet high, and adjacent berms 
at the northwest end of the 150-meter range. This sparsely vegetated mound appears 
to be the backstop for the 150-meter range (Photograph 26). The total area of this 
focal area is 0.3 acres. 



• 



• 



• 



An earthen mound with steel plates, 1 00 x 100 feet and 45 feet high, on the southwest 
side of the northwest end of the 1,000-meter range. The inclined steel plates appear 
to provide the target for the 1 ,000-meter range, probably simulating the inclined 
armor of a tank. The plates are largely eroded and at some points completely 
penetrated from impacts, with vegetation growing around and between them 
(Photograph 28). The estimated area of this focal area is 0.2 acres. 

A suspected firing position for the 150-meter range located adjacent to a bunker. This 
open, unvegetated area is approximately 0.1 acre in size. 

A burn kettle located adjacent to the 150-meter range firing position (Photograph 29). 
Burn kettles were reportedly used for disposal of munitions by burning. The steel box 
is open on one side and contains soil mixed with debris. 

An 8x8 foot steel-lined pit containing scrap munitions, located southwest of the 150- 
meter backstop. The pit has three steel sides, and is open to grade on the fourth side 
(Photograph 3 1 , after removal of contents). 

A 3-foot diameter depression containing munitions on the southwest side of Tank 
Alley within the 1 ,000-meter range. This depression (prior to excavation) is 1 -2 feet 
deep and contains munitions debris at the surface. The surrounding area is well 
vegetated. 

A 40-foot high earthen mound tunnel barrier, approximately 100 x 70 feet (0.2 acre). 
The mound is the second tunnel barrier located in the 1 ,000-meter range. Tunnel 
barriers are reportedly used to prevent rounds from "sailing" off of the desired 



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• 



trajectory. If the round does not pass through the narrow trajectory allowed by the 
tunnel, it will strike the earth mound. The tunnel is constructed of eight-foot diameter 
concrete pipe passing through the earth mound. The mound is well vegetated. 

A 60-foot high earthen mound tunnel barrier, approximately 130x7 feet (0.2 acre). 
The mound is the first tunnel barrier located in the 1 ,000-meter range, and it is well 
vegetated. The focal area also contains a 1 0-foot x 1 0-foot inclined steel plate target 
for the 1 00-meter range. This plate is supported by concrete walls such that 
munitions would hit the lower face and be trapped between the plate and ground 
(Photograph 27). The lower face of the plate exhibits erosion from munition impacts. 

The suspected firing position for the 1,000-meter range. This 0.1 -acre area on the 
northwest side of a 170 x 35 foot earthen mound has several concrete equipment pads 
and is lightly vegetated (Photograph 22). 

A cleared area at the southeast end of Tank Alley with visible building debris, where 
two bunkers and former buildings appear on the schematic. The lightly vegetated 
area is approximately 0.3 acres. 

• The suspected firing position for the 100-meter and 2,000-meter ranges at the 
southeast end of Tank Alley. This cleared area is in the roadway (Photograph 32). 

These focal areas were sampled by a total of 1 6 soil grids, one composite soil sample, and 
five grab soil samples (Ogden, 1998a). Samples were collected from the following 
locations: 

1 . Grid 05 A was located at the base of the suspected firing position for the 1000-meter 
range between the mortar and equipment platforms (Photograph 22). This location 
was selected to represent any impact firing activities may have had on the mound and 
its surrounding area. The area is thinly wooded. 

2. Grids 05B, 05D, 051, and 05L were located on the top of the four mound focal areas 
along the 100, 150, and 1,000-meter ranges. Grids 05C, 05E, 05H, and 05K were 
located at the base of these four mounds on the side that faces the range firing 
location on each mound. The locations on each mound were as follows: 

• Grids 05B (Photograph 23) and 05C were located at the 1 00 x 70 foot, 40-foot 
high (first) earthen mound tunnel barrier in the 1 ,000-meter range, which also 
served as the end of the 100-meter range. Grab sample G5A (Photograph 27) was 
collected from soil within the hole beneath the target steel plate at the end of the 
100-meter range. 



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♦ 



• Grids 05D (Photograph 24) and 05E were located at the 135 x 75 foot, 60-foot 
high (second) earthen tunnel barrier in the 1 ,000-meter range, which also 
contained a 10 x 10 foot steel target plate. 

• Grids 05H (Photograph 25) and 051 were located at the 100 x 100 foot, 45-foot 
high earthen backstop with steel plates at the end of the 1,000-meter range. In 
addition, grab sample G5B (Photograph 28) was collected from soil between the 
rows of steel plates on the backstop for the 1000-meter range. 

• Grids 05K and 05L were located at the 130 x 70 foot, 30 foot-high earthen mound 
backstop at the end of the 150-meter range. 

Each of these areas was thinly wooded, and some locations at the base of the mounds 
were unvegetated. Locations G5A and G5B were not vegetated. 

3. The location of the former buildings and bunkers were sampled with grids 05F and 
05G. The samples from these two grids were composited into a single sample, except 
for VOCs. Individual VOC samples were collected from each grid. This area is 
generally open with some building debris. 

4. Grid 05J was located near the suspected firing position for the 150-meter range, near 
the instrumentation bunker at the southeast end of this range. The grid area is open 
and generally unvegetated. Also in this general area, four grab samples were 
composited to a single sample C5A from around the burn kettle. The samples were 
from all four sides within one foot of the kettle. 

5. Grid 05M was located near the berms to the north of the 1 50-meter range backstop. 
The grid area is open and generally unvegetated. 

6. Grid 05N was centered on the steel-sided munition pit (Photograph 30). The pit was 
excavated and was found to be lined with steel on the bottom. The steel plate had a 
hole in the middle (Photograph 31). A grab sample, G5C was collected from the hole 
in the bottom of the munition pit. A grab sample, G5D was collected from the soil 
excavated from the pit. The area in the vicinity of the grid was partially vegetated. 

7. Excavation activities at the munition pit by Grid 05O located hundreds of rounds of 
munitions. Grid 05O was not sampled due to excavated rounds and soil piles 
covering this area. A grab sample G5E was collected from the bottom of the 
excavation and a grab sample G5F was collected from the soils excavated from this 
area. The area was moderately vegetated prior to excavation activities. 

8. Grid 05P was located at the suspected firing position for the 100-meter and 2,000- 



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meter ranges, at the east end of Tank Alley. The area is flat and unvegetated 
(Photograph 32). 

9. Grid 05Q was established as a control grid. The grid was located in an area that was 
not expected to be affected by activities conducted in the J-l Range. Grid 05Q was 
located outside of the line-of-fire of the J-l Range on Barlow Road. The area was 
partially vegetated. 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 5A-1 to 5A-5 for the eastern end of the 
area, and 5B-2, 5B-3, and 5B-5 for the western end of the area. Complete results 
(including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in 1986. EPA and NGB selected this photography from 
among photos between 1 943 and 1991 as showing the most features of interest for this 
area. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 30 for surface soil 
and Table 3 1 for subsurface soil. RDX, HMX, and 2,4-DNT were detected in a sample of 
soil removed from inside the steel-lined pit, adjacent to the 150-meter range. Explosives 
were not detected in the soil sample from the hole in the steel bottom of this pit. Sixteen 
metals were detected at concentrations exceeding the proposed background levels, most 
commonly copper and manganese. Two VOC were detected: acetone was widely 
detected in surface (0-6 inch) soil, and chloroform was detected in soil (18-24 inch) at 
grid 05G. PAHs, phthalates, and carbazole were the only SVOCs detected. Twelve 
PAHs and carbazole were detected in soil sample C5A from the burn-kettle near the 150- 
meter range. BEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate were each detected at several grids. 4,4'- 
DDE and 4,4' -DDT were detected at concentrations below proposed background levels. 
The pesticides endrin (G5D) and heptachlor (C5A) were each detected once in surface (0- 
6 inch) soil. Endrin aldehyde was detected in two surface soil grab samples (G5A and 
G5D). MCPA was detected at several locations below the proposed background levels. 
PCP was detected once in surface soil (G5D). 

The compounds detected in Area 5 are generally similar to those detected in other areas in 
the Impact Area. The cyanide and heptachlor detections were unusual, as these 
compounds were detected only five and four times overall, respectively. The detections 
of anthracene and carbazole at location C5A, and endrin aldehyde at G5A and G5D, were 
the only detections of these compounds in the Impact Area. 

Radiological surveys were performed at Areas 4 and 5, as described in Section 3. All of 
the soil sampling grids in Area 5 were surveyed except for 05O, which was inaccessible 
due to excavated munitions at this location. Counts of alpha and beta-gamma radiation 
are summarized in Table 29. No detects of alpha or beta/gamma radiation were evident 



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for any of the soil sampling locations during Survey 3. The ground conditions during this 
survey generally consisted of frozen ground or areas of unfrozen ground saturated with 
water. Earlier surveys (Surveys 1 and 3) indicated possible detections of alpha radiation 
at several locations. However, the instrument used for the surveys was later found to be 
malfunctioning due to both a tear in the Mylar™ probe face, and an electrical short circuit 
in the cable connecting the probe and meter. Survey 3 was conducted using a new 
instrument. 

One possible detection of alpha radiation was observed during Survey 3 on the 1 000-m 
steel target near G5B. The detector measured 20 to 40 counts per minute (80 to 165 
disintegrations per minute) on a portion of the steel plate that appears to have been 
partially penetrated by rounds. A survey of this location with the beta/gamma 
instrumentation indicated no detectable radiation above background. Other locations on 
the steel plate, including areas where rounds had entirely penetrated, exhibited no 
elevated levels of alpha or beta/gamma radiation. In some cases the probes could be 
inserted into the holes made by the rounds. 



4.5.8 Areas 6-8 

Area 6 is located southeast of the intersection of Turpentine Road and Tank Alley, and 
Area 7 is located to the southwest of this intersection. Area 8 is located around the 
perimeter of Succonsette Pond in the southwest corner of the Impact Area. Each of these 
areas are comprised of one focal area as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 19971). 

• Area 6 is a historic area of burnt vegetation apparent on the 1958 aerial photograph 
with an estimated size of five acres. The 1963 aerial photo has no evidence of 
scarring or damage as a result of burnt vegetation. There is no historical information 
on the cause of the burnt areas visible in the 1958 aerial photo. Currently the area is 
well vegetated (Photograph 33). 



• 



• 



Area 7 is comprised of three historic areas of burnt vegetation visible on the 1958 
aerial photograph. The total area is approximately eight acres. The 1963 aerial photo 
has no evidence of scarring or damage as a result of burnt vegetation. Currently the 
area is well vegetated (Photograph 34). 

Area 8 is a historic area of burnt vegetation visible in the 1958 aerial photograph. 
The estimated size of the burnt vegetation area surrounding Succonsette Pond is 170 
acres. The 1 963 aerial photo has no evidence of scarring or damage as a result of 
burnt vegetation. Currently the area is well vegetated (Photograph 35). 



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Each focal area was sampled with a total of five soil sample grids (Ogden, 19971). A 
boring in Area 6 was completed as a monitoring well nest. In Area 7, a boring was 
completed as a water table well. In Area 8, sediment and surface water samples were also 
collected. The results for sediment and surface water samples in Area 8 are discussed in 
Section 4.7. Soil samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Boring 7 was installed immediately to the west of the historic burnt vegetation area in 
Area 6. The unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring 
was completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-7S) and deep (MW- 
7D) monitoring well. The area in the vicinity of the monitoring well was vegetated. 

2. Grids 06A, 06B, 06C, 06D, and 06E were located around the drill pad for boring 7. 
The grids were intended to characterize the historic burnt vegetation area in Area 6. 
There were no landmarks to aid in locating the grids for Area 6. After surveying 
these grids it was determined all of the grids were slightly west of the historic burnt 
vegetation area. The area was well vegetated (Photograph 33). 

3. Boring 8 was installed in a historic burnt vegetation area in Area 7. The unsaturated 
zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring was completed as a water 
table monitoring well (MW-8S). The area in the vicinity of the monitoring well was 
highly vegetated. Some cratering was also present in this area. 

4. Grid 07A was located to the north of the drill pad for boring 8 in a historic burnt 
vegetation area. Grids 07B, 07C, and 07D were located to the north of the access 
road to boring 8 in a historic burnt vegetation area. Grid 07E was located to the south 
of access road to boring 8, approximately 100 feet north of a historic burnt vegetation 
area. The area in the vicinity of the grids was highly vegetated (Photograph 34). 
Some cratering was also present in this area. 

5. Grids 08 A, 08B, 08C, 08D, and 08E were located around the perimeter of 
Succonsette Pond, within the historic burnt vegetation area that encircled the pond. 
The area around the pond and the access to the pond were highly vegetated 
(Photograph 35). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 6-1 to 6-5, 7-1 to 7-5, and 8-2 to 8-5, and 
complete results (including nondetects) are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used 
for these figures was from aerial photography in April 1958. EPA and NGB selected this 
photography from among photos between 1 943 and 1 99 1 as showing the most features of 
interest for this area. Burnt vegetation areas are apparent on the 1958 photo as darkened 
or black areas. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent as lighter or white areas. 



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Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Tables 32 to 37, 
organized by area and depth. Results for each area are discussed below. 

4.5.8.1 Area 6 

The explosive compound PETN was detected in a surface (0-6 inch) soil sample from 
grid 06C. Nine metals were detected above proposed background levels, most commonly 
potassium and manganese. Five VOCs were detected in Area 6: acetone was the most 
widely distributed, with less frequent detections of TCE, chloroform, methylene chloride, 
and tetrachloroethene (PCE). PAHs and BEHP were the only SVOCs detected and were 
each found in one sample. Two pesticide compounds, alpha-chlordane and gamma- 
chlordane, were detected in surface soil at boring 7. Four herbicide compounds were 
detected in Area 6. The compounds 2,4 DB, 2,4,5-T, and bentazon were detected in 
surface soil at grid 06C. MCPA was detected in surface soil at grids 06B, 06D, and 06E 
at concentrations lower than the proposed background level. 

4.5.8.2 Area 7 

The explosive compounds 2-NT and PA were detected in surface (0-6 inch) soil at boring 
8. Fifteen metals were detected above proposed background levels, most commonly 
copper and manganese. Acetone and TCE were the only VOCs detected, and PAHs were 
the only SVOCs detected, in a few samples each. 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE were detected 
in about one-third of the samples, although only 4,4' -DDE was detected above proposed 
background levels and only in one sample. The herbicides bentazon, chloramben, and 
MCPP were detected once each in Area 7. MCPA was detected at levels below proposed 
background in surface soil at grids 07A, 07B, and 07E. 

4.5.8.3 Area 8 

No explosive compounds were detected in Area 8. Three metals (calcium, barium, and 
lead) were detected above proposed background levels. Acetone, TCE, PCE, and toluene 
were each detected in a few samples. Five PAH were detected at 0-0.5 feet bgs in grid 
08E. The pesticides 4,4' -DDE and 4,4' -DDT were detected several times at levels below 
proposed background levels, and dieldrin was detected once (grid 08D). MCPA was the 
only herbicide detected and was above the proposed background level in surface soil at 
grid 08D. 

The compounds detected in Areas 6,7, and 8 are generally similar to other parts of the 
Impact Area. The detection of 2-NT was one of three detections in the Impact Area, and 
PA was detected at only one other location. The VOC compounds PCE and TCE were 
detected at frequencies greater than in other areas. Phenanthrene was also detected at a 



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higher frequency than in other areas. Phenanthrene has been detected in background 
samples. The pesticides alpha chlordane and gamma chlordane were only detected at 
Area 6. Bentazon was detected at a higher frequency than is typical elsewhere. 

4.5.9 Areas 9-11 and 14 

Areas 9, 10, 11 and 14 were designated as control areas (Ogden, 1997m). Control areas 
are defined as areas not associated with any historical activity. Control areas are expected 
to yield results representative of general conditions in and around the Impact Area. 
Therefore, there are not any specific features observed in aerial photographs that are 
associated with the placement of these sampling locations. Each control area was 
considered a separate focal area. 

Area 9 is located on Pocasset-Sandwich Road north of Five Corners. Area 10 is located 
north of Wood Road in the northeast corner of the Impact Area. Area 1 1 is located south 
of the CS-19 area. Area 14 is located along the access road to boring 7, east of 
Turpentine Road. Each of the four focal areas were sampled with a total of five surface 
soil grids, and borings were advanced in three of the four areas (Ogden, 1997m). 
Samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Boring 4 was installed in the center of Area 9. The unsaturated zone was sampled as 
described in Section 3, and the boring was completed as a water table monitoring well 
(MW-4S). Grids 09 A, 09B, 09C, 09D, and 09E were located around the drill pad for 
boring 4. The area to the southeast of Pocasset-Sandwich Road was covered with 
low-growing vegetation, as this area has been periodically cleared as a fire-break. All 
the grids except 09B were located in undisturbed wooded areas adjacent to the road 
(Photograph 36). 

2. Boring 5 was installed in the center of Area 10. The unsaturated zone was sampled as 
described in Section 3, and the boring was completed as a monitoring well nest with a 
water table (MW-5S) and deep monitoring well (MW-5D). Grids 10A, 10B, IOC, 
10D, and 10E were located around the drilling pad for boring 5. The area was 
covered with low-growing vegetation (Photograph 37). 

3. Boring 25 was installed in the center of Area 11. The unsaturated zone was sampled 
as described in Section 3, and the boring was completed as a water table monitoring 
well (MW-25S). Grids 1 1 A, 1 IB, 1 1C, 1 ID, and 1 IE were located around the 
drilling pad for boring 5. Grid 1 1 A contained mounded material that appeared to 
have been previously dumped or moved. Grid 1 IB contained metal scrap. Grid 1 ID 
was adjacent to a tank used as a target. This area was heavily cratered and numerous 



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UXO were identified in the area. The area was covered with vegetation (Photograph 
38). 

4. Grids 14A, 14B, 14C, 14D, and 14E were located on the access road to the drilling 
pad for boring 7. The area was covered with vegetation (Photograph 39). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 9-2 to 9-5, 10-2 to 10-5, 11-1,-2, -3, and 
-5, and 6-1 to 6-5 (Area 14 adjoins Area 6) and complete results including nondetects are 
provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures was from aerial 
photography in March 1997. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are apparent as lighter 
or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected in each areas are provided in Tables 38 to 
45, which are organized by area and sample depth. Results for each area are discussed 
below. 

4.5.9.1 Area 9 

No explosive compounds were detected in Area 9. Fifteen metals were detected at 
concentrations exceeding the proposed background levels. Manganese, cobalt, and 
chromium were the metals with the most frequent exceedances. The VOCs EDB and 
MTBE were detected in a surface soil (0-6 inch) sample at grid 09 A. The VOCs acetone 
and chloroform were each detected at three grids at depths of 0-6 inch and 1 8-24". 
Methylene chloride was detected in a surface soil sample at grid 09A. The PAH 
compounds fluoranthene and phenanthrene were detected in surface soil at grids 09A and 
09E, respectively. BEHP was detected in most samples. 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT were 
detected in surface soil at concentrations that did not exceed the proposed background 
levels. The pesticides alpha BHC and delta BHC were detected at 60 feet bgs in soil 
boring 4. The herbicide 2,4,5-T was detected in a subsurface soil sample (1 8-24 inch) at 
grid 09E. MCPA was detected in a majority of the surface soil samples, though none of 
the detections exceeded the proposed background level. 

4.5.9.2 Area JO 

No explosive compounds were detected in Area 10. Fourteen metals were detected at 
concentrations exceeding proposed background levels, most commonly manganese, 
cobalt, and potassium. The volatile compounds chloroform, methylene chloride, and 
TCE were detected in a surface soil sample from grid 1 0A. Chloroform was also detected 
in a surface soil sample at Grid 1 0D and acetone was detected in a surface sample from 
boring 5 and in a subsurface soil sample from grid 10D. The only SVOC compounds 
detected were phthalates. BEHP was detected in a majority of the samples, and diethyl 



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phthalate was detected at 18-24 inches in grid 10E. The pesticide 4,4'-DDT was detected 
at one grid below the proposed background level. The herbicides 2,4,5-T and MCPA 
were detected in Area 10. The compound 2,4,5-T was detected in subsurface soil at grid 
10B. The concentrations of MCPA were below proposed background levels in surface 
soil samples at grids 10A, 10B, 10D, and 10E. 

4.5.9.3 Area 11 

The explosive compound PETN was detected in surface (0-6 inch) soil sample at boring 
25. Sixteen metals were detected at concentrations exceeding proposed background 
levels, most commonly copper, manganese, and potassium. A total of six VOCs were 
detected in Area 11. Acetone was detected in a majority of the samples. Chloroform was 
detected in surface soil at grids 1 1 A, 1 IB, and 1 ID. MEK was detected in a surface soil 
at grids 1 1 A and 1 IB. Methylene chloride was detected in surface soil at grids 1 IB, 1 1C, 
and 1 ID. Toluene was detected at grid 1 1 A. BEHP was detected in surface soil at boring 
25. The pesticides 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE were detected, but were not present at levels 
above proposed background levels. Two herbicides were detected in Area 1 1 : MCPA 
and picloram. MCPA was not detected above the proposed background level. Picloram 
was detected in surface soil at boring 25. 

4.5.9.4 Area 14 

PETN was detected in surface soil at grid 14A. Thirteen metals were detected at 
concentrations exceeding background, most commonly potassium and chromium. Six 
VOCs were detected: acetone, chloroform, methylene chloride, toluene and TCE were 
each detected in three grids, and benzene was detected in surface soil at grid 14B. No 
SVOC or pesticides were detected in Area 14. A total of three herbicides were detected 
in Area 14, including bentazon, dicamba and MCPA. The compounds bentazon and 
dicamba were detected in subsurface soil at grid 14A. MCPA was detected at three 
locations below proposed background levels. 

The compounds detected in Areas 9, 10, 11, and 14 are generally similar to those detected 
elsewhere in the Impact Area, including focal areas suspected to have contamination. 
Several VOCs were detected once in the control areas that were relatively uncommon in 
the other areas, such as EDB and MTBE at Area 9, and benzene at Area 14. 

Area 1 1 may have been a former artillery target area, considering the cratering and debris, 
and the presence of PETN in the surface soil. Area 1 1 appears to be slightly south of the 
former extension of Tank Alley that was from Turpentine Road to Pocasset-Sandwich 
Road. This extension is most clearly visible in aerial photos from 1966 and 1977 (ERI, 
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4.5.10 Area 12 

Area 12 is located in Demo Area 1, north of the Forestdale Road. Area 12 is comprised 
of one focal area as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1997n). Demo Area 1 is a topographic 
low where demolition activities have been conducted historically. The quantities of 
munitions detonated or burned at this area and periods of use are not well known. Types 
of material used for training purposes at this location included C4, TNT, dynamite, shape 
charges, cratering charges, bangalore torpedoes, clay-more mines, and detonating cord 
(Ogden, 1997a). Demolition charges were restricted to less than 40 pounds. The area 
was used prior to 194 las an anti-tank range (Ogden, 1997a). The earliest document 
showing use for demolition training is dated 1979 (Ogden, 1997a). The bottom of Demo 
Area 1 is a flat, cratered, one-acre area that is completely unvegetated (Photograph 40). 

This focal area was sampled with a total six surface soil grids and one boring completed 
as a monitoring well nest. Samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Boring 1 9 was installed in the middle of the flat cratered area at the bottom of Demo 
Area 1. The unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring 
was completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-19S) and deep 
(MW-19D) monitoring well. 

2. Grids 12A, 12B, 12C, 12D, and 12E were located around the drill pad for boring 19. 
Each of the grids contained craters. Grid 12F was added as a control grid for Area 12. 
Grid 12F is located on the eastern end on Area 12 along the roadway into the Demo 
Area. Grid 12F is located in a moderately vegetated area. 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 12-1 to 12-5 and complete results 
including nondetects are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in March 1997. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are 
apparent as lighter or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 46 for surface soil 
(0-6 inches bgs) and 47 for subsurface soil (1.5-2 feet bgs). Six explosive compounds 
were detected in surface soil samples, including 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, 2A-DNT, 4A-DNT, 
RDX, and HMX (the DNTs appear on Figure 12-4 with SVOCs because they were 
detected from the OM31B analysis). RDX was also detected at 10-14 feet in boring 19. 
Twelve metals were detected at concentrations exceeding background levels, most 
commonly manganese and copper. Acetone was detected in subsurface soil at grid 12B, 
and TCE was detected in a duplicate surface soil sample (but not in the original) from 
boring 19. 



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Phthalates and PAHs were detected at all locations except for grid 12F. The most 
commonly detected PAH compounds included benzo(b)fluoranthene, 
benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and pyrene. Phthalate compounds detected include 
BEHP and di-N-butyl phthalate. Hexachlorobenzene and N-nitrosodiphenylamine were 
also detected in surface soil at boring 19, and the latter compound was also detected in 
subsurface soil at grid 12D. 

Five herbicide compounds were detected in Area 12, including 2,4,5-T, bentazon, 
dicamba, MCPP, and PCP. The compounds 2,4,5-T, bentazon, and dicamba were each 
detected in separate surface soil samples. The compound MCPP was detected in surface 
soil samples at boring 1 9 and grid 1 2 A, and in a shallow subsurface soil sample at grid 
12A. PCP was detected in a surface soil sample from boring 19. 

The pesticides alpha-BHC, alpha endosulfan, delta-BHC, dieldrin, gamma-BHC, and 
heptachlor epoxide were detected in Area 12. The compounds alpha-BHC, alpha 
endosulfan, dieldrin, gamma-BHC and heptachlor epoxide were detected in a surface soil 
sample from boring 19. The compounds alpha endosulfan and delta-BHC were detected 
in surface and subsurface soil samples collected at grid 12C. The compound alpha 
endosulfan was also detected in a surface soil sample from grid 12B. 

The explosive compounds 2A-DNT and 4A-DNT were not detected in any other areas 
sampled, and RDX and HMX were only detected in one other area (the munitions pit in 
Area 5). The metal and volatile compounds detected in Area 12 are similar to those 
detected in other areas. PAHs, phthalates, PCP, alpha endosulfan, and delta-BHC were 
detected in Area 12 at a frequency greater than elsewhere in the Impact Area. Gamma- 
BHC, detected once in Area 12, was detected in only one other area. Heptachlor epoxide 
was only detected in Area 12. 

4.5.11 Area 13 

Area 1 3 is located in Demo Area 2 north of Gibbs Road. Approximately 1 5 acres within 
Demo Area 2 appear to have been used for demolition activities based on the clearing of 
vegetation. The area consists of a valley in the center of the area and a hill leading from 
the valley to a bunker at the eastern boundary. The quantities of munitions detonated or 
burned at this area and periods of use are not well known. Types of material used for 
training purposes at this location included C4, TNT, dynamite, shape charges, clay-more 
mines, and detonating cord (Ogden, 1997a). Demolition charges were restricted to less 
than 10 pounds. The earliest document showing use of this area for demolition training is 
dated 1981 (Ogden, 1997a). 

Area 13 is comprised of three focal areas as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1997n): 



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• The hill at the eastern end of the valley, where recent demolition has been performed. 
A portion of the hill was reportedly graded during engineering work performed in 
1997 and is unvegetated. There is evidence of recent demolition activity on the hill 
consisting of four demolition craters (Photograph 41). These craters comprise a focal 
area, less than 0. 1 acre in size. 

• The northern portion of the valley where the majority of recent demolition training 
was reportedly conducted. This area has light vegetation and has visual signs of 
demolition activity consisting of craters and debris (Photograph 42). This area 
comprises a focal area approximately three acres in size. 

• West of the valley where older demolition operations may have been performed. This 
area is revegetated with trees, but has minimal undergrowth (Photograph 43). In 
addition this area contains debris and some craters. This area comprises a focal area 
approximately two acres in size. 

These focal areas were sampled at a total ten surface soil grids and one boring completed 
as a monitoring well nest. Samples were collected from the following locations: 

1. Grid 13A was located in the craters on the hill at the eastern end of the valley. There 
is little or no vegetation on this hill (Photograph 41). 

2. Boring 16 was located in the focal area in the northern portion of the valley. The 
unsaturated zone was sampled as described in Section 3, and the boring was 
completed as a monitoring well nest with a water table (MW-16S) and deep (MW- 
16D) monitoring well. This area was sparsely vegetated prior to clearing the drill 
pad. 

3. Grids 13B, 13C, 13D, and 13E were located around the drill pad for boring 16. Grids 
13B, 13C, and 13D contained craters (Photograph 42). All grids contained numerous 
magnetic anomalies, and were largely unvegetated. 

4. Grids 13F, 13G, 13H, and 131 were located in the western, formerly cleared, portion 
of the valley. Each grid was placed in areas of low vegetation. Grid 13H contained a 
low spot that may have been a crater. Grid 131 contained mounded soils (Photograph 
43). 

5. Grid 13 J was located south of the valley in a moderately vegetated area. This grid is a 
control grid for Area 13 and is not associated with any known historic activities. 



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Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 13-2 to 13-5 and complete results 
including nondetects are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in March 1997. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are 
apparent as lighter or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 48 for surface soil 
(0-0.5 feet bgs) and Table 49 for subsurface soil (1 .5-2 feet bgs). 2,4-DNT was the only 
explosive compound detected, at 1.5-2 feet bgs in grid 13F (the compound appears on 
Figure 13-4 with SVOCs because it was detected from the OM31B analysis). Thirteen 
metals compounds were detected above proposed background levels, most commonly 
cobalt, copper, and manganese. The VOCs acetone, methylene chloride, toluene, and 
TCE were detected at scattered locations and depth intervals. The SVOCs that were 
detected were primarily phthalates (BEHP, diethyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate in 
four samples) and PAHs (four samples). In addition to these SVOC compounds, 1,2,4- 
trichlorobenzene, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 4-nitrophenol, N-nitrosodi-N-propylamine, 
and PCP were each detected in surface soil at grid 13F, and N-nitrosodiphenylamine was 
detected at 10-12 feet bgs in boring 16. 

Seven pesticide compounds were detected. 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE were the most 
commonly detected pesticides, although neither of these compounds were detected at 
concentrations above proposed background levels. Dieldrin was detected at grid 13F in 
surface soil, and in soil boring 16 at 10-12 feet bgs. Delta-BHC was detected at 2-4 feet 
bgs in boring 16, which also had detections of aldrin, endrin, and heptaclor at 10-14 feet 
bgs. MCPA was the most commonly detected herbicide, although it was not detected 
above the proposed background concentration. The herbicides 2,4,5-T (grid 13C), 
dicamba (grid 13H), picloram (grid 131) and Silvex (grid 13 J) were each detected once in 
surface soil samples. 

The compounds detected in Area 1 3 soil are generally similar to those detected elsewhere 
in the Impact Area, with the exception of the SVOCs and pesticides. The SVOC 
compounds 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 4-nitrophenol, N-nitrosodi-N-propylamine were 
only detected in this area, and 1 ,2,4-trichlorobenzene was detected at only two locations 
in the Impact Area, including Area 13. The pesticides aldrin and endrin were only 
detected in Area 13. 

4.5.12 Area 15 

Area 15 is located at the junction of Spruce Swamp Road and Monument Beach Road, on 
the western perimeter of the Impact Area. Area 15 is comprised of two focal areas as 
illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1997o): 



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• A cleared area at the junction of Spruce Swamp Road and Monument Beach Road 
which is visible in aerial photographs from 1943 through 1977 (ERL 1994). The 
portion of this area west of the current fire break along Spruce Swamp Road is now 
revegetated (Photograph 46). This area is approximately 1 acre in size. 

• Two mounds, each approximately 30 x 15 feet and four feet high, at the northwest 
corner of the historic cleared area. Mounded material and light-toned objects were 
identified in this area on an aerial photo from 1977 (ERI, 1994). The mounds are now 
covered with vegetation). This area is approximately 0.1 acres in size. 

This focal area was sampled with a total of three surface soil grids. Samples were 
collected at the following locations: 

1. Grids 15A and 15B were located to sample each of the 4-foot mounds. Each grid was 
located on top of and around a mound. The area is heavily vegetated (Photograph 

45). 

2. Grid 15C was located at the junction of Spruce Swamp Road and Monument Beach 
Road. This portion of the historic cleared area is currently cleared and unvegetated, 
apparently as part of the fire break along Spruce Swamp Road. 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 15-2, 15-3, and 15-5 and complete 
results including nondetects are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these 
figures was from aerial photography in March 1997. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas 
are apparent as lighter or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Table 50 for surface soil 
(0-0.5 feet bgs) and Table 51 for subsurface soil (1.5-2 feet bgs). The only compounds 
detected in this focal area were metals, VOCs (chloroform in subsurface soil at grid 15C), 
and herbicides (2,4,5-T, dicamba, and Silvex in surface soil at grid 15B. The compounds 
detected in Area 15 are generally similar to those detected elsewhere in the Impact Area. 

4.5.13 Areas 16-18 

Areas 16, 17 and 18 are located at gun positions to the north and south of the Impact 
Area. Area 16 (GP-16) is located in the northwest corner of the Training Ranges, south 
of the intersection of Jefferson and Gaudet Roads. Area 17 (GP-7) is located in the 
southern portion of the Training Ranges on Mitton Road. Area 18 (GP-18) is located in 
the northwest corner of the Training Ranges on Flatrock Road, just east of Gibbs Road. 
Each gun position is considered one focal area as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1998b). 



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Activities at each of the gun positions included the firing of 105mm and 155mm 
howitzers. Propellant bags were used when firing the howitzers. Extra propellant bags 
were commonly burned at these locations. Currently there is no evidence of where 
burning occurred, and it is difficult to determine where weapons were set up within the 
cleared areas because the areas are periodically graded to maintain access. 

The gun positions selected for sampling were designed to be representative of a high, 
medium, or low-use gun position as identified in the Draft Range Use History Report 
(Ogden, 1997a) and from additional training records for 1995 and 1996. Focal areas were 
identified based on data for the number of rounds fired from 1989, 1995, and 1996, and 
data for the amount of propellant burned from 1986 and 1989-1991 (Ogden, 1998b). 

• GP-16 (Area 16) was selected as a high-use gun position. GP-16 ranked first among 
active gun positions for number of rounds fired and eighth for amount of propellant 
burned. The estimated size of this area is 1 .4 acres. 

• GP-7 (Area 1 7) was selected as a medium-use gun position. GP-7 ranked seventh 
among active gun positions for number of rounds fired and third for amount of 
propellant burned. The estimated size of this area is 1.4 acres. 

• GP-18 (Area 18) was selected as a low-use Gun Position. GP-18 ranked last (twelfth) 
among active gun positions for number of rounds fired and eleventh for amount of 
propellant burned. The estimated size of this area is one acre. 

Note that GP-9 (ranked third for rounds fired and fourth for propellant burned) was 
studied under the IRP (CS-18), as summarized in Section 2.3. 

Area 16 was sampled with a total of fifteen surface soil grids. Area 17 was sampled with 
a total of fourteen surface soil grids. Area 18 was sampled with a total of nine surface 
soil sample grids. Samples were collected at the following locations: 

1 . Grids GHA, GHB, GHG, GHH, GHJ, GHK, GHL, and GHM were located within the 
cleared position at GP-16. The gun position area is largely free of vegetation 
(Photograph 48). 

2. Grids GHC, GHD, GHE, GHF and GHI were located down range of the firing 
direction (southeast) or downwind (east) in the wooded area surrounding GP-16 
(Photograph 47). 

3. Grids GHN and GHO were control grids for Area 16. The grids were located in a 
wooded area west of GP-16 (Photograph 49). These grids were not down range or 



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down wind of GP-16 and were not expected to be affected by firing activities. 

4. Area 17 Grids GMA through GMD were located down range of the firing direction 
(north) or downwind (east) at GP-7. The area is moderately to heavily wooded 
(Photograph 50). 

5. Grids GME through GML in Area 17 were located within the cleared portion of GP- 
7. The area is open and free of vegetation (Photograph 51). 

6. Area 17 control grids GMM and GMN were located west of GP-7 in a heavily 
wooded area (Photograph 52). The area was not down range or down wind of the gun 
position and was not expected to be affected by activities at GP-7. 

7. Area 18 grids GLA through GLE were located in the cleared portion of GP-18. The 
area was free of vegetation (Photograph 53). 

8. Grids GLF, GLG, and GLH were located in the woods south or east of GP-18, down 
range of the gun position (south-southeast) or downwind (east). The area was heavily 
wooded (Photograph 54). 

9. Grid GLI was located to the west of GP-1 8 and was considered the control grid for 
Area 18. The area was not down range or downwind of the gun position and was not 
expected to be affected by activities at GP-18. The area was heavily wooded 
(Photograph 55). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 16-1 to 16-5, 17-1 to 17-5, and 18-2 to 
18-5, and complete results including nondetects are provided in Appendix C. The 
imagery used for these figures was from aerial photography in March 1 997. Cleared or 
sparsely vegetated areas are apparent as lighter or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Tables 52 to 57, 
organized by area and by surface soil (0-0.5 feet bgs) versus subsurface soil (1.5-2 feet 
bgs) samples. Three explosive compounds were detected: PETN, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6- 
DNT. Most of the DNT detections appear on the SVOC maps in Figures 16-4 and 17-4 
because they were detected using the OM3 IB analytical method. PETN was detected at 
grid GHC in Area 16. DNTs were detected at grids GHA, GHB, GHJ, GHK, and GHM 
in Area 16, and at grids GMF and GMK in Area 17. Nine metals were detected above 
proposed background levels, primarily copper and manganese in surface soils. 

The VOCs acetone, methylene chloride, and PCE were detected. Acetone and methylene 
chloride were detected in a majority of samples in Area 16, and in a majority of surface 



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soil samples in Areas 17 and 18. PCE was detected once in surface soil at grid GLB. 
SVOC compounds detected included phthalates, PAHs, phenol, and N- 
nitrosodiphenylamine. The phthalate compounds BEHP and di-N-butyl phthalate were 
detected in a majority of surface soil samples in each area, and diethylphthalate was 
detected in surface soil at grid GLH. A total of eleven PAH compounds were detected at 
Grid GHB. Phenol was detected at grid GHE, and N-nitrosodiphenylamine was detected 
at grids GHB, GHJ, GHM, and GMF. 

The pesticides 4,4' -DDT and 4,4' -DDE were detected at scattered locations in Areas 16 
and 1 8, at levels below proposed background concentrations. Heptachlor (grid GMF) 
was the only other pesticide detected. The PCB compounds Arochlor 1254 and Arochlor 
1260 were detected at grid GHA, and Arochlor 1248 was detected at grid GMH. The 
herbicide MCPA was detected in a majority of surface soils in each area, although not at 
concentrations exceeding proposed background levels. The herbicide MCPP was also 
detected in many surface soil samples in each area. Other herbicides detected were 2,4- 
DB (grid GMF), dicamba (grid GMH), and PCP (grid GMM). 

The compounds detected in Areas 16, 17, and 18 are generally similar to those detected 
elsewhere in the Impact Area, with the exception of PCBs and explosive-related 
compounds. The PCBs at grids GHA and GMH were the only detections of these 
compounds in the Impact Area. With the exception of a few detections at the two 
demolition areas (Areas 12 and 13), DNTs were not detected elsewhere. Di-N-butyl 
phthalate was detected at a higher frequency in Areas 16-18 compared to elsewhere in the 
Impact Area, as was N-nitrosodiphenylamine. 

4.5.14 Areas 19-22 

Areas 19, 20, 21 and 22 are at Mortar Positions and Observation Positions located outside 
the southwest corner of the Impact Area. Area 1 9 (MP-8) is located north of Wheelock 
Road and west of Pocasset-Sandwich Road. Area 20 is comprised of MP-3 and MP-6. 
MP-3 is on Pocasset-Sandwich Road, south of Wheelock Road. MP-6 located just south 
of Mortar Position 8. Area 21 (MP-5) is just south of MP-6. Area 22 (Observation 
Positions 5, 6, and 7) is located on a high point north of Wheelock Road, with mortar 
positions 5, 6, and 8 to the east and north. Areas 19, 20, 21 and 22 each contain one focal 
area as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden, 1998b). 

Activities at the mortar positions included the firing of 60mm and 81mm mortars. 
Propellant bags were used when firing. Extra propellant bags may have been burned at 
these locations. Currently there is no evidence of where burning occurred, and it is 
difficult to determine where weapons were set up within the cleared areas because the 
areas are periodically graded to maintain access. 



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Each mortar position selected for sampling was designed to be representative of a high, 
medium, or low-use mortar position as identified in the Draft Range Use History Report 
(Ogden, 1997a) and from additional training records for 1995 and 1996. Focal areas were 
identified based on data for the number of rounds fired from 1989, 1995, and 1996, and 
data for the amount of propellant burned from 1986 and 1989-1994 (Ogden, 1998b). 

• MP-8 (Area 1 9) was selected as a high-use mortar position. MP-8 ranked first among 
active mortar positions for rounds fired and sixth for propellant burned. Estimated 
area is 0.2 acres. 

• MP-3 and MP-6 (Area 20) were selected as medium-use mortar positions. MP-3 
ranked fourth among active mortar positions for rounds fired and first for propellant 
burned. MP-6 ranked sixth among active mortar positions for rounds fired and fourth 
for propellant burned. Estimated total area is 1 . 1 acres. 



• 



• 



MP-5 (Area 2 1 ) was selected as a low-use mortar position. MP-5 ranked last (eighth) 
among active mortar positions for rounds fired and sixth for propellant burned. 
Estimated total area of MP-5 is 0.5 acres. 

Area 22 was established as a control area for the mortar positions. These observation 
positions are uprange and upwind of the mortar positions and are not expected to be 
affected by firing activities 

These focal areas were sampled by a total of 2 1 soil sampling grids. Samples were 
collected from the following locations: 

1. Grids M8A, M8B and M8C were located to sample Area 19. Grid M8A was located 
in the cleared mortar position which is an open unvegetated area (Photograph 56). 
Grids M8B and M8C were located down range (east-northeast) of the mortar position 
in a moderately wooded area (Photograph 57). 

2. Grids M6A, M6B and M6C were located to sample MP-6, part of Area 20. Grids 
M6A and M6C were located in the cleared mortar position which is an open, lightly 
vegetated area (Photograph 58). Grid M6B was located to the east down range of the 
firing direction in a moderately wooded area. 

3. Grids M3 A through M3E were located at MP-3, also part of Area 20. Grids M3 A, 
M3B, and M3C were located in the cleared mortar position which is an open 
unvegetated area (Photograph 59). Grids M3D and M3E were located to the 
northeast, down range of the firing direction in a lightly wooded area (Photograph 



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60). 

4. Grids M5A through M5E were located to sample Area 21 . Grids M5A, M5B, and 
M5C were located in the cleared mortar position which is a lightly vegetated area 
(Photograph 61). Grids M5D and M5E were located to the northeast, downrange and 
downwind of the mortar position in a wooded area (Photograph 62). 

5. Grids OPA through OPE for Area 22 were located in and between Observation Points 
OP5, OP6, and OP7. These grids were the located on a ridge west of and overlooking 
MP-5 and MP-6. This area is open and relatively unvegetated (Photograph 63). 

Detected compounds are summarized in Figures 19-2 to 19-5 and complete results 
including nondetects are provided in Appendix C. The imagery used for these figures 
was from aerial photography in March 1997. Cleared or sparsely vegetated areas are 
apparent as lighter or white areas in this photo. 

Summary statistics for the compounds detected are provided in Tables 58 to 65, 
organized by area and for surface soil (0-0.5 feet bgs) versus subsurface soil (1.5-2 feet 
bgs). No explosive compounds were detected in these areas. Nine metals were detected 
above proposed background levels in surface soil, most commonly copper and 
manganese. Acetone, chloroform, methylene chloride, TCE, and PCE were the only 
VOCs detected. Acetone was detected in a majority of the samples, while the other 
compounds had only scattered detections. The SVOCs detected include PAHs and 
phthalates (BEHP and diethyl phthalate), which were frequently detected in surface soils. 
4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE were the only pesticides detected, and were below proposed 
background levels except at Grid OPD in surface soil. The herbicide MCPA was 
detected in most surface soil samples, although none of the concentrations exceeded 
proposed background levels. The herbicides 2,4,5-T (grid M3C), dicamba (grid M6A), 
PCP (grid M6A), and picloram (grid M3B) were each detected once in surface soil. 

The compounds detected and frequencies of detection in Areas 19, 20, 21, and 22 were 
generally similar to those detected in other areas. 

4.6 Groundwater Samples 

This subsection presents results for groundwater samples, including profile samples 
collected during drilling and monitoring well samples collected after well installation. 
The results for monitoring wells include a discussion of background results. Validated 
results are summarized by analyte type in the following subsections. 



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4. 6. 1 Profile Results 

Water samples were collected as grab or "profile" samples during advancement of the 
borings from the water table to bedrock, as described in Section 3. The results of these 
samples were used to determine well screen depths. Profile samples were collected from 
14 wells on ten-foot intervals from the water table surface to bedrock, when water was 
available. The well locations with profile samples included MW-1, MW-2, MW-3, MW- 
5, MW-7, MW-10, MW-13, MW-15, MW-16, MW-17, MW-18, MW-19, MW-21, and 
MW-23. Profile samples were routinely analyzed for explosives and VOCs in accordance 
with the Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997). At two locations profile samples were also 
analyzed by USGS for tritium in order to provide groundwater age dating information for 
use in groundwater modeling. 

4.6.1.1 Explosives 

The frequency of detections for explosives in the profile samples is provided in Table 66. 
However, samples from monitoring wells completed at these same depth intervals often 
did not show explosive contamination, except for RDX and HMX. The monitoring well 
samples generally had fewer interferences observed in the explosives analysis, compared 
to the profile samples. Interferences in profile samples consisted of non-explosive 
compounds eluting at the same time as the explosive target analytes. PDA spectra were 
obtained to allow these interferents to be recognized in the data validation process, as 
described in Section 4.4. Table 67 provides a comparison of the unvalidated and 
validated results from profile samples at MW-19. Seven explosive compounds were 
identified as false positives in these profile samples using the PDA spectra during the 
validation process. 

Profile samples were often very turbid, and this characteristic may have been a factor in 
the interferences cited above. The turbidity is the result of the disturbance of the 
surrounding soil during drilling. Unfortunately, turbidity measurements were not 
collected during profile sampling which would have allowed a correlation analysis 
between turbidity and explosive concentrations. 

Another possible source of the interferents was the use of materials during profiling that 
were not used in monitoring well construction. Grease was used to lubricate the threads 
of the drill pipe so it can be disassembled when the drill string is pulled out of the ground 
as a monitoring well is installed. Two samples of "clean" drilling grease were analyzed 
using EPA Method 8330. One grease was a product called Well-Guard which is 
manufactured by Jet-Lube, Inc. The grease is a hydrocarbon free, nonmetallic, vegetable 
and synthetic compound containing clay and silica. The other grease was a product 
called Pure Gold that is manufactured by CETCO and is a bentonite clay-based material. 



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PETN, 4A-DNT, and tetryl were each detected in the Pure Gold grease at concentrations 
of 20000, 310, and 3600 ug/kg, respectively. According to the manufacturers no 
explosive compounds are used in either grease. It is believed these detections represent 
organic interferences during the analysis. This was confirmed using PDA, which found 
no spectral matches for explosives. Thus, detections of 4A-DNT, PETN, and tetryl in 
profile samples can possibly be explained by the use of drilling grease. 

4.6.1.2 Volatile Organic Compounds 

The frequencies of detections for VOCs in the profile samples are provided in Table 68. 
The results of the VOC profile analysis for wells 1-3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15-19, 21, and 23 are 
presented in Figures X through AD. The VOC compounds detected in the profile 
samples include; 2-hexanone, acetone, benzene, BDCM, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 
DBCM, ethylbenzene, MEK, toluene, TCE, and xylene. Results for acetone are not 
plotted in Figures X through AD due to laboratory contamination issues as discussed in 
Section 4.4. The results for the compounds BDCM, DBCM, ethylbenzene, and xylene 
were also not plotted due to the very limited number of detections. All detects of 2- 
hexanone, benzene, carbon disulfide, and toluene were at or below the reportable 
quantification limits. The concentration levels of the remainder of compounds were low, 
generally less than 14 ug/L. With the exception of chloroform, all of the detections 
appear to be random with no obvious trend with depth. In some instances, the depth of 
the reported contamination does not fit with the known hydrogeologic characteristics of 
the MMR site or with the contaminant's fate and transport properties. None of the 
reported profile detects was substantiated when a monitoring was completed and sampled 
at the same depth interval. The results indicate no widespread distribution of VOC 
contaminants vertically throughout the aquifer. 

4.6.1.3 Tritium 

The USGS collected groundwater profile samples and analyzed them for tritium. Tritium 
was produced worldwide during above ground nuclear weapons testing at various 
locations around the world which resulted in the introduction of tritium to the 
atmosphere. Peak nuclear testing and tritium levels occurred in 1964. Tritium has a half- 
life of 12.4 years and has proven to be useful as a groundwater tracer (Brown, 1971). The 
tritium bomb peak in groundwater can be used to provide a reference point for estimating 
groundwater recharge rates and flow velocities (Allison and Hughes, 1975 and Egboka et. 
al., 1983). The depth of the 1964 bomb peak and the location of the sampling point in 
relation to the groundwater mound can provide an assessment of the rate of groundwater 
movement. Once located, intermediate depth monitoring wells were constructed and then 
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Chlorofluorocarbons can be used to precisely age date the groundwater. By determining 
the age of groundwater at a given depth this information can be used to help calibrate and 
refine the existing USGS groundwater flow model. This will allow more accurate 
representation of groundwater flow conditions beneath the Impact Area. At the time of 
this report the data from the chlorofluorocarbon dating was not available from the USGS 
and would not be available for at least another six months. 

Figures AE and AF are examples of tritium profile results from two wells, MW-13 and 
MW-17. Both plots indicate 1964 age groundwater at an approximate depth of 190 feet 
bgs which corresponds to depths of 70 feet (MW-13) and 115 feet (MW-17) below the 
water table (bwt). Groundwater deeper than 70 feet bwt at MW-13 and 115 feet bwt at 
MW-17 is older than 34 years. MW-13 is located 3348 feet downgradient from the 
mound, and MW-17 is located 15,178 feet downgradient from the mound, using FS12- 
90WT0013 as a reference point. FS12-90WT0013 has the highest water level based on 
the water table maps (Figures N through Q). If it is assumed that tritium moves through 
the unsaturated zone quickly, in less than one year, then a vertical rate of 2.1 and 3.4 
feet/year is derived for the saturated zone. Solomon et. al. (1995) calculates the travel 
time through the unsaturated zone at FS-12 was 14 years with a recharge rate of 28 to 45 
inches/year. This corresponds to a horizontal flow velocity of approximately 2 1 to 240 
feet/year, which is consistent with USGS estimates (Masterson et. al., 1996). 



4.6.2 Well Results 

4. 6. 2. 1 Background 

Background samples are intended to document conditions at the MMR site unaffected by 
activities from the Impact Area and Training Ranges, known contaminant plumes, or 
source areas. The impacts of historical activities at or near the MMR site not related to 
military activities, such as ubiquitous and consistently present non-point sources related 
to road deicing, pesticide/herbicide application, or agriculture practices, are included in 
background samples. 

It is recognized collection of background groundwater samples poses a unique challenge 
for the IAGS since the top of the water table mound covers a portion of the Impact Area 
and the FS-12 area studied by IRP. This position makes it imperative that background 
groundwater monitoring wells be selected carefully to avoid potential source areas. 
Background monitoring wells were selected for this study based on the available 
analytical data and based on known source areas and groundwater plumes. The 20 
monitoring wells selected for background sampling are within or around the MMR 
facility but outside of the Impact Area and Training Ranges, as indicated in Figure A. All 



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B S 



of the background monitoring wells appear to be unimpacted by MMR activities and are 
outside of known source areas and groundwater plumes. 

In some cases, the background wells had existing data which had been validated in 
accordance with the guidelines for the I AGS. These data are presented in Appendix C. 
The existing data have not been incorporated into the statistical analyses performed in 
this draft report, bur will be incorporated for the final Completion of Work Report. 

As with soils (see Section 4.5.1), the groundwater background data were used to establish 
a benchmark concentration by calculating UTLs for compounds detected frequently. In 
the case of groundwater, the specified frequency of detection for the calculation was 85 
percent, to be consistent with procedures used to calculate background in the MMR Risk 
Assessment Handbook (Hazwrap, 1994). The data evaluation is detailed in Appendix F 
to this report. Compounds detected in groundwater, their frequency of detection and 
UTL, where applicable are given in Table 69. 

4.6.2.2 Summary of Non-Background Groundwater 

A total of 102 monitoring wells were sampled, excluding background locations. Sixty 
out of the 102 monitoring wells are new wells installed as part of the IAGS in and around 
the Impact Area, Training Ranges, and Demo Areas. IRP, USGS, US Fish & Wildlife 
Department, private entities, or municipal water districts previously installed the 
remaining 42 monitoring wells. 

Explosives 

The explosive compounds detected are listed in Table 70. All of the detects are depicted 
in Plate 1, and complete validated data including nondetects are included in Appendix C. 
Explosives were detected in 14 out of 102 wells sampled. 

RDX (0.59 ug/L) and HMX (2.5 ug/L) were found in the shallow well MW1S with RDX 
(4.6 ug/L) present in the upper intermediate well, MW-1M (Table 43). The explosive 
results in MW1S were verified in the duplicate analysis, W01SSD. The shallow wells 
MW2, MW25, CS19-58MW0006E, and CS19-58MW0001 IE had detectable levels of 
RDX at 13, 2, 1.2, and 0.96 ug/L, respectively. A duplicate sample at CS19- 
58MW0006E had a RDX concentration of 1.1 ug/L. The intermediate depth well MW- 
23M1 had a detect of RDX at 2.3 ug/L. The well CS19-58MW0009E had detectable 
concentrations of HMX, PETN, and RDX at 3.2, 39, and 7.7 ug/L, respectively. The 
monitoring well CS19-58MW0002 also had HMX and RDX as well as 2A-DNT and 4A- 
DNT at concentrations of 7.6, 19, 0.6, and 0.7 ug/L, respectively. Both CS19- 
58MW0009E and CS19-58MW0002 are water table wells. All of the wells discussed 



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■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 



above lie in the same geographic area of the Impact Area and downgradient of the 
groundwater mound. 

RDX and PA (1 .3 and 0.29 ug/L, respectively) were detected at the water table in 
MW16S. Well MW16S is located in the Demo 2 Area. 

PA was detected at the deep well MW1 8D at a concentration of 0.56 ug/L. Well 
MW18D is located northeast of the Impact Area. 

At MW30, 0.52 ug/L of 4A-DNT and 12 ug/L of HMX 12 ug/L were detected at the 
water table. The explosive compounds 2,4-DANT and RDX were detected in FS12- 
90WT0013 at concentrations of 0.44 and 5.2 ug/L, respectively. 

TNT, HMX, RDX, 2A-DNT, and 4A-DNT were detected in the shallow well MW19 at 
levels of 10, 44, 190, 2.3, and 4.5 ug/L, respectively. The deep well at this same location 
had a detectable level of RDX at 0.4 ug/L. The shallow and deep monitoring wells 19S 
and 1 9D are located within the Demo 1 Area. 

Volatile Organic Compounds 

The VOCs detected are listed in Table 71. The VOC detections are depicted in Plate 2, 
with the exception of chloroform detections less than the proposed background level. 
Complete validated data including nondetects are included in Appendix C. 

The VOC compounds detected and frequency in groundwater samples include acetone (in 
18 percent of the samples), benzene (two percent), BDCM (one percent), chloroform (47 
percent), DBCM (three percent), MTBE (three percent), toluene (eight percent), TCE 
(one percent), and xylene (four percent). All reported detects were less than 18 ug/L. 
The majority of VOC detects are scattered around the Impact Area and vertically 
throughout the aquifer with no pattern. The detects of benzene, toluene, and xylene 
appear to cluster on the east side of MMR and are west and north of the groundwater 
mound, i.e. downgradient. However, the vertical pattern of detects is random. In 
comparison, chloroform was the only VOC detected in background groundwater samples. 
Table 72 identifies the VOCs detected, excluding acetone and chloroform, at a given 
monitoring well location. 

Semi- Volatile Organic Compounds 

The SVOCs detected are listed in Table 71 . The SVOC detections are depicted in Plate 3, 
and complete validated data including nondetects are included in Appendix C. 



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The SVOCs detected and frequency include 2,4-dimethylphenol (detected in one percent 
of the samples), 2-methylphenol (one percent), 4-methylphenol (one percent), and BEHP 
(64 percent). The detections of 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-methylphenol, and 4-methylphenol 
all occurred in sample WF13XA from well FS12-90WT0013. The concentrations of 2,4- 
dimethylphenol, 2-methylphenol, and 4-methylphenol were 8, 2, and 2 ug/L, respectively. 
The 2-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol results were estimated. Monitoring well FS 1 2- 
90WT0013 is screened at the water and located on the south side of the groundwater 
mound. 

BEHP was detected in numerous samples throughout the study area as well as in 
approximately 60 percent of the background groundwater samples. The spatial 
distribution of BEHP in groundwater was evaluated using kriging techniques and no 
obvious spatial pattern was discernible. The range of BEHP concentrations was from 1 to 
280 ug/L. In comparison, BEHP was the only SVOC detected in the background 
groundwater samples with a range of 1 to 100 ug/L. As discussed in Section 4.4.7, the 
detection of BEHP was observed throughout all samples including background and is 
believed to be the result of laboratory contamination. 

Pesticides & Herbicides 

The pesticides and herbicides detected in groundwater are depicted in Plate 4 and listed in 
Table 71. Complete validated data including nondetects are included in Appendix C. 

The pesticides detected and frequency in groundwater samples include; alpha-BHC 
(detected in three percent of the samples), beta-BHC (two percent), dieldrin (two 
percent), and endrin aldehyde (one percent). The herbicides detected and frequency 
include MCPP (two percent), PCP (one percent), and Silvex (one percent). At FS12- 
90WT0013 alpha-BHC and beta-BHC were detected at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.03 
ug/L, respectively. Monitoring well FS12-90WT0013 is screened at the water table and 
is located south of the groundwater mound. Dieldrin and Silvex were each detected once 
at wells in the Demo Area 1 . Dieldrin was detected in MW-19S at concentration of 0.01 
ug/L and Silvex was present at a level of 0.1 ug/L in MW-19D. Monitoring well MW- 
19S is screened at the water table and MW-19D is screened from 243 to 248 feet below 
the water table. Endrin aldehyde was detected in MW-29S at an estimated concentration 
of 0.01 ug/L. Monitoring well MW-29S is screened at the water table. In comparison, 
dieldrin and MCPP were each detected once in a background groundwater sample. 

The remaining detections of pesticide and herbicide are clustered on the northwest side of 
MMR. Alpha-BHC and beta-BHC were detected in Bourne well 95-15 at concentrations 
of 0.02 and 0.01 J ug/L, respectively. Bourne well 95-15 is screened at a depth of 78 to 
90 feet below the water table. Alpha-BHC and MCPP were detected in monitoring well 



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95-6, which is screened at a depth of 64 to 76 feet below the water table. The estimated 
level of alpha-BHC and MCPP in 95-6 was 0.01 and 240 ug/L, respectively. Dieldrin, 
MCPP, and pentachlorophenol were each detected once in monitoring wells USGS- 
BHW2 15083, LRWS 8-2, and MW-23M3 at concentrations of 0.01, 230, and 0.17 ug/1, 
respectively. Monitoring wells LRWS 8-2, and MW-23M3 are screened at depths of 60 
to 75 and 153 to 163 feet below the water table. The well USGS-BHW2 15083 has an 
unknown screen depth. 

Inorganics/Metals 

The metals and inorganic compounds detected are listed in Table 71 . All of the 
detections exceeding proposed background levels are depicted in Plates 5-7, and complete 
validated data including nondetects are included in Appendix C. 

The inorganics include total metals (unfiltered), dissolved metals (filtered), cyanide, and 
anions. All of the metals analyzed were detected. Table 71 summarizes results for both 
filtered and unfiltered samples, combined. Separate statistical summaries of total 
(unfiltered) and dissolved (filtered) results are presented in Tables 73 and 74, 
respectively. 

The highest concentrations for dissolved aluminum, chromium, iron, and potassium 
occurred in sample W16DDL. MW-16D is a deep well screened from 108 to 1 13 feet 
below the water table and located in the Demo 2 Area. The sample W19SSL had the 
highest dissolved antimony, barium, silver, thallium, and vanadium concentrations. MW- 
19S is screened at the water table and is located in Demo Area 1. 

The total metal results indicate sample W02SSA had the highest concentration of the 
following metals: aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, copper, iron, lead, 
molybdenum, nickel, and sodium. Well MW-2S is located in the Impact Area and is 
screened at the water table. The sample from well LRWS 1-2 had the highest 
concentrations of total calcium and magnesium and the sample from well MW-3D had 
the highest concentration of antimony and silver. Well MW-3D is located in the Impact 
Area and is screened at a depth of 2 1 8 to 223 feet below the water table. 

Comparison with Background 

Background UTLs were developed for five metals and four other inorganics in 
groundwater, as indicated in Section 4.6.2. 1 . Concentrations exceeding the UTLs were 
measured for each of the analytes as shown in Table 7 1 . Magnesium had the fewest 
exceedances of proposed background levels, in five percent of the samples. Potassium 
exceeded background in 12 percent, and sodium in 15 percent of the samples. Calcium 



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and manganese exceeded background in 24 percent of the samples. The following 
paragraphs present comparisons of the metals and inorganics data between the 
background wells and the other wells, at various depths, for a selected group of metals 
that did not have calculated UTLs. 

Tables 75 and 76 summarize results for the background versus non-background wells, at 
various depths, for total and dissolved metals. The background wells used were those 
designated in the Groundwater Field Sampling Plan (Ogden, 1997p). Grouping of the 
screened interval by depth was performed using the following criteria; 1) shallow wells 
screened from to 50 ft bwt, 2) intermediate wells from 5 1 to 99 ft bwt, and 3) deep 
wells in excess of 100 ft bwt. The selection of the depth criteria was arbitrary, although 
wells completed at depths in excess of 1 00 ft below the water table are generally screened 
in a finer grained size material than shallower wells. The field "All Results" in Tables 75 
and 76 include all wells sampled except for the background wells. The mean and 
standard deviation calculations in Tables 75 and 76 include both detected and undetected 
results. Since the detection limits varies from sample to sample it was felt the most 
conservative approach was to treat undetected results as detects rather than transforming 
the data to a lower more representative values using various statistical methods. The 
reportable detection limit varies as a result of calibration interference, matrix interference, 
blank contamination, and need for dilution. All of the reported minimum values are non 
detected levels and are the lowest reportable quantitation limit. 

Aluminum 

As can be seen in Tables 75 and 76 the total and dissolved aluminum values are different 
with the total aluminum values much higher for the deep samples. Also, total aluminum 
values are higher for samples collected from deep wells (1,465 ug/L) versus shallow 
wells (538 ug/L). The most common reportable detection limits for aluminum were 12.3 
and 21 .9 ug/L. There are no current regulatory guidelines for aluminum in drinking 
water. The background results for total and dissolved aluminum are lower than those 
from wells completed in and around the Impact Area. A background UTL for aluminum 
was not calculated due to the frequency of detection not meeting the criteria of 85 
percent. 

Chromium 

The concentration of total chromium in all groundwater samples ranges from 0.7 to 60 
ug/L with a mean concentration of 3.0 ug/L. The most common reportable detection 
limits for chromium were 0.9 and 1.1 ug/L. The EPA MCL for total chromium in 
drinking water is 100 ug/L (EPA, 1996b). A slight difference is noted between the 
average background total chromium levels and levels for wells completed in around the 



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S S B B B BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 



Impact Area. However, no difference was evident between average dissolved chromium 
for background wells and wells completed in and around the Impact Area. Hem (1980) 
reports the concentration of chromium in natural waters unaffected by groundwater 
contamination are less than 10 ug/L. A background UTL for aluminum was not 
calculated due to the frequency of detection not meeting the criteria of 85 percent. 

Copper 

The total and dissolved copper levels do not differ significantly nor is there any apparent 
difference by depth or comparison with background. Total copper levels for all wells 
range from 1.1 to 24 ug/L with a mean of 2.6 ug/L and median value of 2.3 ug/L. The 
median value is the upper reportable detection limit. The most common reportable 
detection limits for copper were 1.1 and 2.3 ug/L. The action level for total copper at the 
tap is 1300 ug/L (EPA, 1996b). A background UTL for copper was not calculated due to 
the frequency of detection not meeting the criteria of 85 percent. 

Iron 

The total and dissolved iron levels differ significantly, however there is not any apparent 
difference by depth or comparison with background. Although, the shallow total and 
dissolved iron results appear lower than other depths and background, statistically the 
difference is not significant. Total iron levels for all wells range from 20 to 29,900 ug/L 
with a mean of 1694 ug/L and median value of 174 ug/L. The most common reportable 
detection limit for iron was 20.4 ug/L. Hem (1989) reports that total iron in the 1000 to 
10,000 ug/L range in groundwater is common. The concentration of iron and manganese 
in groundwater can be correlated with the flow rate of water in a study of sand and gravel 
aquifers on Cape Cod (Frimpter and Gay, 1979). A SMCL of 300 ug/L has been set for 
iron (EPA, 1996b). A background UTL for iron was not calculated due to the frequency 
of detection not meeting the criteria of 85 percent. 

Lead 

The total and dissolved lead levels do not differ significantly nor is there any apparent 
difference by depth or comparison with background. Total lead levels for all wells range 
from 1 .7 to 20 ug/L with a mean of 2.6 ug/L and median value of 1 .8 ug/L. The median 
value is the upper reportable detection limit. The most common reportable detection 
limits for lead were 1 .7 and 1 .8 ug/L. The action level for lead at the tap is 1 5 ug/L and 
the maximum contaminant goal is 50 ug/L (EPA, 1996b). A background UTL for lead 
was not calculated due to the frequency of detection not meeting the criteria of 85 
percent. 



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Manganese 

The total and dissolved manganese levels do not differ significantly nor is there any 
apparent difference by depth or comparison with background. Total manganese levels 
for all wells range from 0.4 to 1 820 ug/L with a mean of 127 ug/L and median value of 
54 ug/L. The most common reportable detection limit for manganese ranged from 0.4 to 
3.7 ug/L. A SMCL of 50 ug/L has been set for manganese (EPA, 1996b). A background 
UTL for manganese was calculated due to frequency of detection of 1 00 percent. The 
calculated UTL was 130 ug/L. 

Nickel 

The total and dissolved nickel levels do not differ significantly nor is there any apparent 
difference by depth or comparison with background. Total nickel levels for all wells 
range from 0.9 to 16 ug/L with a mean of 3.3 ug/L and median value of 2.3 ug/L. The 
most common reportable detection limit for nickel ranged from 0.9 to 2.1 ug/L. A 
background UTL for nickel was not calculated due to the frequency of detection not 
meeting the criteria of 85 percent. 

Zinc 

The total and dissolved zinc levels do not differ significantly nor is there any apparent 
difference by depth. However, the background levels of zinc are significantly higher than 
the results from wells in and around the Impact Area. Total zinc levels for all wells 
range from 2.4 to 7210 ug/L with a mean of 323 ug/L and median value of 9.5 ug/L. It is 
apparent the data is highly skewed with a few high zinc detects. The most common 
reportable detection limit for zinc was 3.2 ug/L. A SMCL of 5000 ug/L has been set for 
zinc (EPA, 1996b). A background UTL for zinc was not calculated due to the apparent 
bias of the background data. Eight of the background wells were LRWS which were 
constructed of galvanized steel which contains zinc. As a consequence, all of the 
background wells had elevated levels of zinc. 

Field Parameters 

In a number of cases (29), the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) measurements were in excess of 
the solubility limits for water at that temperature indicating a likely calibration error. 
Tabulated values for D.O. in water saturated with air at standard pressure and for a given 
temperature are presented in (APHA, 1980). As the temperature increases the amount of 
oxygen possible in water decreases. At 50 C. the saturation limit of D.O. in fresh water is 
12.75 mg/L. The lowest groundwater temperature measured for the IAGS was 4 C. 
Therefore, D. O. measurements above 13 mg/L were considered in error and not included 
in the statistical evaluation. 



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Similarly, some specific conductance results suggested a calibration error. Specific 
conductance is the ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current, in this case 
groundwater. Water has a low ability to conduct electricity but the addition of salts 
increases the ability of water to conduct electricity. Groundwater specific conductance 
covers a wide range with values as low as 50 umhos/cm possible in systems where the 
lithology is resistant to chemical attack (Hem, 1989). Deionized water has a specific 
conductance of less than 10 umhos/cm. Four groundwater samples (W23DDA, 
W23SSA, W21SSA, and, W16DDA) had specific conductance values less than 10 
umhos/cm which are likely in error and thus were not included in the statistical analysis. 

4.7 Surface Water and Sediment 

This section provides results for surface water and sediment samples. As for the soil 
samples, detected compounds in each area are indicated on the figures for that area, 
contained in Volume 2. The first two digits of each figure number correspond with the 
area, and the last digit corresponds with the analyte group (l=explosive, 2=inorganic, 
3=VOC, 4=SVOC, 5=pesticide/herbicide). For example, the explosive detects for Area 
23 are on Figure 23-1. If an analyte map is not included in the figures in Volume 2, there 
were no detects of that analyte. Photographs for each Area are provided in Appendix A. 

The figures for each area are shown on a background that consists of an aerial photograph 
from March 1997. The water lines for most of the water bodies were relatively low at the 
time of this photography, compared to the time of sampling in early 1998. Therefore, the 
surveyed sample locations may sometimes appear to be located on the bank of the water 
body rather than within it. With the exception of sediment samples collected from silt 
fences, all samples were collected from within the water body, a few feet from its edge. 



4.7.1 Background Areas 32, 39, 40, and 43 

Background surface water and sediment samples were collected from Raccoon Swamp 
(Area 32), Great Pond (Area 39), Doughnut Pond (Area 40), and Upper Pond (Area 43) 
(Figure A). Three of the four surface water bodies are outside the MMR boundary. 
These four areas are believed to be representative of background conditions. A total of 
21 surface water and sediment samples were collected from the four background surface 
water bodies. 

Raccoon Swamp (Area 32) is located approximately 3000 feet north of Gibbs Road, near 
the northern boundary between MMR and Shawme Crowell State Forest. This swamp 
consists of multiple small ponds draining to a single area approximately 100 by 50 feet. 



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There are no observable outlets from this receiving basin. Two surface water and 
sediment samples were collected at Raccoon Swamp. 

Great Pond (Area 39) is located approximately 2000 feet west of MMR, on the east side 
of Route 28 and about 300 feet from the highway. This pond receives runoff from the 
vicinity of Route 28. There are no observable outlets from this pond. Five surface water 
and sediment samples were collected at Raccoon Swamp. 

Doughnut Pond (Area 40) is located approximately 1 000 feet north of MMR between 
Highway Routes 130 and 6. There are no observable inlets to or outlets from this 
doughnut-shaped pond. Five surface water and sediment samples were collected at 
Raccoon Swamp. 

Upper Pond (Area 43) is located approximately 3700 feet west of MMR in the Four 
Ponds Conservation Area in Bourne. This pond has an inlet at the eastern end, and drains 
through a culvert to Freeman Pond at the west end. Eight surface water and sediment 
samples were collected at Raccoon Swamp. 

Surface water and sediment data were used to establish background concentration 
benchmarks by calculating UTLs as described previously (see Section 4.5.1). In the case 
of surface water and sediment, UTLs were calculated for compounds detected in 74 
percent of the samples. Detected compounds, frequency of detection, and UTLs, where 
applicable, are given in Table 77 for surface water and sediment. Data evaluation is 
detailed in Appendix F. 

4. 7.2 Areas 23-31 and 33-38 

Areas 23-3 1 and 33-38 are surface water bodies that are deep enough to intersect 
groundwater or appear to receive storm water runoff. These areas have been selected for 
surface water and sediment sampling. The ponds, swamps, and bogs include Succonsette 
Pond, Bailey's Pond, Round Swamp, Gibbs Pond, Grassy Pond, Ox Pond, By-Pass Bog, 
a wetland area south of J-3 Range, Opening Pond, Rod and Gun Club North Pond, 
Donnely Pond, Little Halfway Pond, Deep Bottom Pond, the Cranberry Bog, and Snake 
Pond (Figure A). The ponds, swamps and bogs are possible conduits and areas of 
compound accumulation. Each surface water body was evaluated for primary inlets and 
outlets, which would serve as focal areas for sampling. A total of 69 surface water and 75 
sediment samples were collected. These areas and any historical information for the 
ponds are described in the following paragraphs. 

Succonsette Pond (Area 8) is located within the southwest corner of the Impact Area. 
The one-acre pond is in the bottom of a kettle hole (Photograph 64). The depth of 



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standing water is unknown. The pond is nearly round and no primary inlets or outlets 
from the pond have been observed. 

According to the Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1 997a), potential impacts may 
include influence from mortar firing at targets within the impact area, east and northeast 
of Succonsette Pond. Reportedly, 55-gallon drums were observed in the vicinity of this 
pond. The drums may have been used as targets for 50-caliber machine guns. Three 
surface water and sediment samples were collected at Succonsette Pond. 

Bailey's Pond (Area 34) is located along Burgoyne Road a few hundred yards north of 
the intersection of Burgoyne Road and Wood Road. There is water in the pond with 
areas of reeds and grass growing in the center (Photograph 65). Storm water runoff may 
accumulate in the northern portion of the pond. No other inlets or outlets from the nearly 
one-acre pond have been observed. According to the Range Use History Report, 
dumping may have occurred at Bailey's Pond. A local resident reportedly discovered an 
artillery projectile, powder bags, and 50 caliber ammunition in the pond. The area of 
suspected dumping is on the southeast side of the pond. Three surface water and sediment 
samples were collected at Bailey's Pond. 

Round Swamp (Area 27) is located north of the intersection of Burgoyne Road and 
Jefferson Road. The half-acre swamp appears to receive runoff from Jefferson Road. 
Two sets of silt fences were observed in the drainage/erosion channel on the southwest 
corner of the swamp. Vegetation in the swamp is mostly blueberry and briar. Little 
standing water was observed during the reconnaissance in September 1 997, but evidence 
of frequent inundation was observed (Photograph 66). A flat low-lying area on the north 
side of the swamp may be an overflow plain. The swamp is surrounded by high ground 
on the east, west, and south sides. Three surface water and sediment samples were 
collected at Round Swamp. 

Gibbs Pond (Area 35) is located north of Gibbs Road across from the entrance to the 'U' 
Range. Gibbs Pond has an approximate depth of one foot. This area receives runoff 
from the tank trail, which parallels Gibbs Road to the north of the pond (Photograph 67). 
No outlets from the half-acre pond have been observed. High-tension power lines are 
located directly north of Gibbs Road and pass over Gibbs Pond. Two surface water and 
sediment samples were collected at Gibbs Pond. 

According to the Range Use History Report, around 1980, defoliants were applied along 
the power line right-of-ways by Gibbs Road. Also according to this report, prior to 1974, 
the Army applied pesticides by truck in low areas near Gibbs Road. 

Grassy Pond (Area 28) is located south of Gibbs Road and east of the access road to 'S' 



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Range East. The center of the half-acre pond has standing water after precipitation. The 
majority of the pond area has mounds of grass in it (Photograph 68). This feature 
receives storm water via culverts along Gibbs road. Silt fences were observed in the 
culverts. No apparent outlet was observed from Grassy Pond. High-tension power lines 
are located directly north of Gibbs Road. Three surface water and sediment samples were 
collected at Grassy Pond. 

According to the Range Use History Report around 1980, defoliants were applied along 
the power line right-of-ways by Gibbs Road. Also according to this report, prior to 
1 974, the Army applied pesticides by truck in low areas near Gibbs Road. 

Ox Pond (Area 29) is located northeast of the impact area off of Whip Road. Ox Pond is 
nearly an acre in size with an unknown water depth. Mud flats were observed on the 
north side of the pond and extend to the north/northwest. No apparent inlets or outlets 
were observed (Photograph 69). Storm water runoff likely enters the pond from a hill on 
the east side. Three surface water and sediment samples were collected at Ox Pond. 

By-Pass Bog (Area 37) is located northwest of Snake Pond and east of Greenway Road. 
Old Greenway Road, which extends east from the intersection of Greenway and Pocasset 
Forestdale Roads, borders the bog on the south and east sides. Standing water was 
observed below the level of bog vegetation at the time the reconnaissance was conducted, 
in September, 1997. The 2.4-acre bog is surrounded by high ground on all sides 
(Photograph 70). No apparent inlets or outlets were observed. This depression was 
identified for sampling in the Final Action Plan (ETA, 1997), as a potential drainage area 
for the southeast side of the Impact Area. Three surface water and sediment samples 
were collected at By-Pass Bog. 

The J-3 Wetland (Area 23) is located southeast of the impact area in a low area south of 
J-3 just outside the MMR Boundary. The nine-acre area has standing water just below 
the bog vegetation (Photograph 71). There were three low areas, on the north, west, and 
east sides, which appeared to receive storm water from surrounding high areas. This 
depression was identified for sampling in the July 1997 Final Action Plan, as a potential 
drainage area for the southeast side of the Impact Area. Reportedly there is an area of 
stressed vegetation on the southeast side of this wetland. Three surface water and 
sediment samples were collected at the J-3 Wetland. 

Opening Pond (Area 36) is located near Pocasset and Forestdale Roads. The 0.7-acre 
pond is down range from Range "G". It is approximately 600 feet northwest of the 
parking area for Range "G". High ground and dense vegetation surround Opening Pond 
(Photograph 72). No inlets or outlets were observed. Three surface water and sediment 
samples were collected at Opening Pond. 



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• 



Rod and Gun Club North Pond (Area 25) is located southwest of the impact area and is 
situated in the Rod and Gun Club area about 100 feet east of the entrance road 
(Photograph 73). A swampy area southeast of the pond appears to feed the eight-acre 
pond on its southeast side. The pond has standing water and no outlets. Reportedly, 
water purification training was conducted at the two ponds on the Rod and Gun Club. 
Utility companies used defoliants/herbicides along power line right-of-ways along the 
western boundary of MMR, about 100 feet west of this pond. Three surface water and 
sediment samples were collected at the Rod and Gun Club North Pond. 

Donnely Pond (Area 30) is located west of the impact area. It is a three-acre pond 
situated between Canalview Road and a tank trail. Donnely Pond is full of water and is 
surrounded by high ground on all sides (Photograph 74). No outlets were observed. 
Erosion from the tank trail and power line cut east of the pond is significant and silt 
fences are in place. Three surface water and four sediment samples were collected at 
Donnely Pond. 

According to the Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1 997a), utility companies used 
defoliants/herbicides along power line right-of-ways along the western perimeter and 
northern portion of the Training Ranges and Impact Area. 

Little Halfway Pond (Area 31) is located west of the Impact Area, northeast of Donnely 
Pond. The 0.7-acre pond sits in a kettle hole. An inlet at the southwest corner of the 
pond appears to contribute surface water runoff to the pond. No outlets were observed. 
Two surface water and sediment samples were collected at Little Halfway Pond. 

According to the Range Use History Report, utility companies used defoliants/herbicides 
along power line right-of-ways along the western perimeter and northern portion of the 
Training Ranges and Impact Area. 

Deep Bottom Pond (Area 26) is located northwest of the intersection of Deep Bottom 
Pond Road and Avery Road. Erosion along the southeast approach from Avery Road and 
the northeast approach from Deep Bottom Pond is significant. Silt fences are in place in 
those areas. Two roads cross the pond from east to west, making three pond sections. 
Water was observed in all three however, the southern most pond was silted-in more than 
the other two. An outfall pipe connects the pond and the depression east of the road that 
has a bridge-like wood structure in it. This location also receives runoff from the road. 
No other apparent outlets were observed in the 1 .5-acre pond (Photograph 75). Five 
surface water and sediment samples were collected at Deep Bottom Pond. 

According to the Draft Range Use History Report, Deep Bottom Pond was historically 



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used for water purification training. The pond is designated as a Water Training Site on a 
1949 Range Map. Reportedly, around 1970, a water treatment training exercise was 
observed by a local resident. Boxes of water treatment chemicals were reportedly used 
for the exercise. Dredging reportedly occurred at the pond and dredge materials were 
dumped 50 yards to the north, although there is no soil pile visible in this area today. 
Defoliants may have been staged and used along the power line right of way west of 
Deep Bottom Pond. Water from the pond may also have been used for washing the 
defoliant spray trucks. 

The Cranberry Bog (Area 26) is located north of Deep Bottom Pond (Photograph 76). 
Utility companies used defoliants/herbicides along adjacent power line right-of-ways. 
This bog may receive runoff from the power line right-of-ways. Three low areas that 
appear to receive runoff from storm events were observed, on the south, west, and north 
sides of the bog. Three surface water and sediment samples were collected at Cranberry 
Bog. 

Snake Pond (Area 33) is a large pond located to the southeast of the Training Range 
(Photograph 77). According to the Draft Range Use History Report (Ogden, 1997a), 
during World War II, amphibious vehicle training was performed at Snake Pond. This 
pond has been sampled extensively by AFCEE under the IRP activities, including nine 
surface water and sediment sample locations and eleven macroinvertebrate sample 
locations. Groundwater flow from the southeast portion of the study area may enter 
Snake Pond from the northwest side. Three surface water and sediment samples were 
collected at Snake Pond. 

4. 7.2. 1 Analytical Results 

Detected compounds and frequencies of detection are summarized in Tables 48 and 49 
for surface water and sediment samples. Detected compounds are also indicated on the 
figures for each area. The first two digits of each figure number correspond with the area, 
and the last digit corresponds with the analyte group (l=explosive, 2=inorganic, 3=VOC, 
4=SVOC, 5=pesticide/herbicide). For example, the explosive detects for the J-3 Wetland 
(Area 23) are on Figure 23-1 . If an analyte map is missing, there were no detects of that 
analyte. Complete surface water and sediment data (including nondetects) are provided 
in Appendix C. 

Explosives 

No explosives were detected in the 69 surface water samples. The only explosive 
compound detected in sediment was nitroglycerin. It was detected twice in sample 23 B 
and it's duplicate located at the J-3 Wetland (Area 23) at concentrations of 3,200 and 



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5,200 ug/kg (Figure 23-1). 

Volatile Organic Compounds 

Acetone was the VOC detected most frequently in surface water (84 percent of the 
samples) and sediment (65 percent), followed by toluene (16 percent in surface water, 45 
percent in sediment, MEK (_35percent in sediment), methylene chloride (14 percent in 
sediment), carbon disulfide (seven percent in sediment), MTBE (seven percent in surface 
water), and chloroform (five percent in surface water, four percent in sediment). The 
only locations where toluene was detected in both the surface water and sediment 
samples from the same location were samples 25B from the Rod & Gun Club North 
Pond, 26E from the Cranberry Bog, and 37B from the Bypass Bog. Two of the three 
carbon disulfide detects occurred at Deep Bottom Pond, with the other at Donnely Pond. 
Both of the MTBE detections occurred in samples from Grassy Pond. No VOCs were 
detected in surface water or sediment samples from Gibbs Pond and Deep Bottom Pond. 

Semi- Volatile Organic Compounds 

There were only four detections of S VOCs in surface water: 4-methylphenol twice at 
Round Swamp, diethyl phthalate at Succonsette Pond, and BEHP at the Rod and Gun 
Club North Pond. 4-methylphenol was also observed in a sediment sample from Round 
Swamp. 

The SVOCs detected in sediment included 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, BEHP, di-n- 
butyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, 1 3 P AHs, and N- 
nitrosodiphenylamine. P AHs were detected in four percent of the samples, and BEHP 
was detected in 16 percent of the samples. The other phthalates and phenolic compounds 
were from the following locations: 

• 2-methylphenol ~ Rod & Gun Club North Pond. 

• 4-methylphenol — Succonsette Pond, Rod & Gun Club North Pond, Round Swamp, 
Ox Pond, and Opening Pond. 

• Di-n-butyl phthalate — J-3 Wetland and Grassy Pond. 

• Di-n-octyl phthalate — Snake Pond (no agreement between the field sample and 
duplicate). 

• Diethyl phthalate — Grassy Pond (no agreement between the field sample and 
duplicate) and Gibbs Pond. 

• N-nitrosodiphenylamine ~ J-3 Wetland. 



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4. 7. 2. 4 Pesticides and Herbicides 

Surface Water 

The pesticides detected in surface water include aldrin, alpha-BHC, alpha-chlordane, 
beta-BHC, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, endrin, endrin aldehyde, and heptachlor. 
4,4 '-DDE was detected in eight percent of the samples and 4,4' -DDT was detected in six 
percent, while the other pesticides were each detected in less than four percent of the 
samples. The PCB arochlor PCB-1260 was also detected in surface water. 4,4'-DDE 
was detected at Grassy Pond, Bailey's Pond, and By-Pass Bog. 4,4'-DDT was detected at 
Deep Bottom Pond and Gibbs Pond. Beta -BHC was detected once in a sample from 
Donnely Pond. Endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, and PCB-1260 were detected at Deep 
Bottom Pond. Alpha-BHC and endrin were detected once each at Grassy Pond. Two 
detects of PCB-1260 were observed in samples from Grassy Pond. Endrin, endrin 
aldehyde, and PCB-1260 were each detected once in a sample from Gibbs Pond. 

The herbicides detected in surface water include 2,4-DB, dicamba, MCPP, and Silvex. 
All four compounds were detected in sample 27B from Round Swamp. Silvex was also 
detected once in a sample from Ox Pond and Gibbs Pond. 

Sediment 

The pesticides detected in sediment include aldrin, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4 '-DDE, 4,4' -DDT, 
dieldrin, and endosulfan sulfate. The compounds detected most frequently were 4,4'- 
DDE (37 percent of the samples), dieldrin (35 percent), 4,4'-DDD (29 percent), and 4,4'- 
DDT (18 percent). The highest concentrations of 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin 
occurred in samples from the J-3 Wetland. The highest concentration of 4,4'-DDT was 
observed at Succonsette Pond. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at the J-3 Wetland in the 
field duplicate from location 23 B but not in the original sample from this same location. 

The herbicides detected in sediment include 2,4-DB, 2,4,5-T, bentazon, dicamba, MCPA, 
MCPP, PCP, picloram, and Silvex. MCPA was detected most frequently (in 33 percent 
of the samples), with the other detections identified in less than four percent of the 
samples. The herbicide 2,4-DB was detected once at location 31 A collected at Little 
Halfway Pond. The compounds 2,4,5-T, bentazon, picloram, and Silvex were each 
detected in samples from Snake Pond. In the case of 2,4,5-T, it was detected in the field 
duplicate from 33B, but not in the original sample. Bentazon, picloram and Silvex were 
detected in the original sample only, and not in the duplicate sample. 2,4,5-T was also 
detected once in sample 35B at Gibbs Pond. Dicamba was detected at the J-3 Wetland. 
MCPP was detected in two samples from Snake Pond. However, in both cases MCPP 
was observed in the field duplicate sample but not in the original field sample. PCP and 



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Silvex were each detected once in sample 27D from Round Swamp. 

4. 7.2.5 Metals and Inorganics 

Metals were detected in surface water samples collected from each pond and swamp. The 
number of metals detected in surface water samples ranged from seven metals in Area 31 
(Little Halfway Pond) to nineteen metals in Area 26 (Deep Bottom Pond/Cranberry Bog). 
The most frequently detected metals were calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium 
and sodium, all detected in more than 80 percent of the samples. Every area sampled 
contained these metals. However, sodium and manganese were not detected above the 
proposed background levels, and calcium was detected only once above background. The 
metals boron, cadmium, and mercury were the least frequently detected. Boron was 
detected in Area 25 (Rod & Gun Club Pond), Area 33 (Snake Pond), and Area 43 (Upper 
Pond). Cadmium was detected in Area 23 (J-3 Wetland), Area 25 (Rod & Gun Club 
Pond), and Area 43 (Upper Pond). Mercury was detected in Area 26 (Deep Bottom 
Pond). 

Metals were also detected in all of the pond sediments. The most frequently detected 
metals were aluminum, barium, calcium (not detected above background), copper, 
chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and vanadium, all detected in more than 
80 percent of the samples. The metals detected most frequently above proposed 
background criteria were copper (36 percent), manganese (27 percent), and barium (17 
percent). 

4.8 Storm Water 

A total of five storm water samples (and one duplicate) were collected from surface 
runoff in the Impact Area. Samples were collected from locations 1,3,4, and 5 at the 
intersection of Chadwick Road and Indian Trail, and at location 6 on Spruce Swamp 
Road, as illustrated in the FSP (Ogden 1998d). The results from these samples are 
summarized in Table 80, and detections are indicated on Figures ST-2 and ST-3. 
Acetone was the only organic compound detected in these samples, and it was detected in 
four of the five samples and concentrations of 5 to 7 ug/L. 

A total of 21 metals were detected in storm water samples. Boron, cadmium, mercury, 
and silver were not detected. Antimony and selenium were detected only once, and 
sodium and thallium were detected twice. The other metals were detected in all six 
samples. 



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5. Data Evaluation 

5.1 Preliminary Risk Evaluation 

Risk evaluation procedures for the Impact Area Groundwater Study have been proposed 
to EPA, but not yet approved or finalized (Ogden, 1997e). As such, evaluation of the 
present data in the context of human health is limited to comparison of observations in 
well water to health-based water criteria. The criteria that have been used to date for this 
comparison are drinking water standards and health advisories (HAs), and these criteria 
are applied here. 

The drinking water standards are generally in the form of Maximum Contaminant Levels 
(MCLs), and are enforceable concentration limits set by the EPA Office of Drinking 
Water. They are health-based in that they are set to be as close as feasible to a 
concentration that would have little or no adverse health effect in sensitive members of a 
population ingesting up to two liters of water per day. The MCLs are not always entirely 
health-based in that the EPA must account for the technical feasibility of achieving a 
purely health-based limit in defining a legally enforceable standard. However, the 
margins of safety on MCLs make the limits protective even where some upward 
adjustment has been made. It is of note that two compounds, lead and copper, have 
drinking water standards entirely based on technology. Thus, copper and lead have 
"Action Levels" (as opposed to MCLs) at which efforts to reduce concentrations should 
be taken. 

HAs are also developed by the EPA Office of Drinking Water, but are not enforceable 
standards. HAs are determined solely on achieving a health protective limit, without 
regard to technical feasibility. HAs are calculated based on a similar exposure 
assumption as the MCLs, i.e., that humans may ingest compounds in their drinking water. 
HAs are calculated separately for lifetime exposures and for "longer term" exposures 
(i.e., ingestion of water daily for up to seven years). The longer term HAs account for 
differences in size and consumption of water in children versus adults, so that there are 
separate longer term HAs for children and adults. 

Nine compounds were detected at concentrations that equal or exceed an MCL or HA. 
These include: 

• RDX (>Lifetime HA) at monitoring wells MW-1 S, MW-1M, MW-2M2, MW-19S, 
MW-23M1, MW-25S, CS19-58MW0002, CS19-58MW0009E, and FS12- 
90WT0013; 

• TNT (>MCL) at monitoring well MW-1 9S; 

• Antimony (>MCL) at monitoring well MW-3D; 



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• Lead (> MCL) at monitoring well MW-2S; 

• Molybdenum (> Lifetime HA) at monitoring well MW-2S; 

• Sodium (> HA guidance for salt-restricted diets) at monitoring wells MW-2S, MW- 
2D, MW-16S, MW-16D, MW-21S, and USGS-SDW261 160; 

• Thallium (>MCL) at monitoring well M W-7M2, M W-2 1 S, and FS 1 2-90 WT00 1 0; 

• Zinc (>Lifetime HA) at monitoring wells LRWS 3-1,4-1,5-1,6-1,7-1, and Bourne 
95-15; and 

• BEHP (>MCL) at 35 monitoring wells located throughout the study areas. 

Because there are currently no active production wells in the area, these findings do not 
indicate immediate risk. They do however, indicate findings that should be studied 
carefully. In this regard, it is notable that the exceedances for zinc and BEHP are not 
likely to be representative of groundwater quality in the aquifer. The zinc exceedances 
were only at wells constructed of galvanized steel, and are likely related to these 
construction materials. The BEHP exceedances are discussed at length in Section 4.4, 
and there is strong evidence these resulted from laboratory contamination. 

The detections of explosives and metals above the health-based criteria indicate the need 
to identify potential sources and transport pathways of these compounds. It is 
particularly important to understand if concentrations of these compounds exceeding the 
health-based criteria could occur at points of current or future water use. In the case of 
antimony, lead, molybdenum, and thallium, the detects above health-based criteria appear 
to be anomalies with few other detections in the aquifer. Total antimony was only 
detected twice out of 1 14 samples, at Bourne well 95-15 (4.9 ug/L) and at BB-703 (3.7 
ug/L). It is noted that analysis of antimony is difficult and may be subject to spectral 
interferences (Bonczek et al, 1996). In the case of dissolved antimony there were only 
four detections out of 1 12 samples analyzed, with one result at MW-3D (13.8 ug/L) 
exceeding the MCL (6 ug/L). Similarly, a single total lead detection was above the MCL 
of 15 ug/L, measured at MW-2S (20.10 ug/L). Molybdenum concentrations at MW-2S 
exceeded the Lifetime HA of 40 ug/1 in filtered (63.3 ug/1) and unfiltered (72.1 ug/1) 
samples. As noted in Section 5.2.5.5, well MW-2S was the most turbid of all wells 
sampled. There were only 13 other detections of total lead (1.9 - 7.4 ug/L) and one 
detection of dissolved lead (4.4 ug/L) out of 1 19 samples analyzed. There were six other 
detections of total molybdenum (2.8 - 28.3 ug/1) and seven other detections of dissolved 
molybdenum (1.6 - 30.4 ug/1) in the 76 samples analyzed for this metal. Finally, the 
three detections of thallium that exceeded the MCL of 2 ug/L at MW-7M2 (6.6 ug/L), 
MW-21S (6.9 ug/L), and CS19-90WT0010 (6.5 ug/L) were the only detections of this 
metal out of 1 14 samples analyzed. These detections of metals above health-based 
criteria appear to be spatially scattered with no apparent source. 

As previously mentioned, EPA has not yet approved an approach for evaluating the 



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potential health risk of compounds observed in the environment in the Impact Area or 
Training Ranges. Whereas groundwater concentrations can be compared to MCLs or 
HAs developed using partially risk-based methods under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 
similar values are unavailable for soils. Therefore, the only evaluation possible in the 
case of soil results is comparison to background concentrations. 

It might be possible to develop soil concentrations comparable to the water Health 
Advisories based on preventing health effects associated with exposure to chemical 
compounds in soils. A potential exposure resulting from soil contact produced by 
ingesting small amounts of soils clinging to the hands, or dermal absorption of 
compounds from soil adhering to skin is frequently evaluated as part of risk assessment 
under state (the Massachusetts Contingency Plan) and federal (Comprehensive 
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) waste site regulations. 
Alternatively, or additionally, it might be possible to identify what soil concentration 
would adversely impact groundwater as a result of leaching. These evaluations may be 
applied in the future upon the advice and approval of EPA. 

5.2 Contaminant Distribution 

The following subsections contain a brief summary of observations regarding the 
distribution of the principal contaminants detected. These sections are organized by 
analyte type, and for explosives there are subsections organized by the location of 
detections. 

The particle tracks presented in Figure AH for explosive detections were developed by 
the USGS using the MODFLOW groundwater model. Each particle track was developed 
by "seeding" the model with particles at the depth and location where explosives were 
detected within the saturated zone. Multiple particles can be placed at the same location 
at different depths, as was done at locations MW-1 and MW-19. For each explosive 
detection, particles were seeded at the top and bottom of the well screen. Since the well 
screens are relatively short (i.e., less than 10 feet), the particle paths from the top and 
bottom of the well screen were essentially identical. Another reason for the similar 
particle paths is that a dispersion factor is not included in MODFLOW. 

Dispersion is the spreading of a solute in the vertical and horizontal (both longitudinal 
and transverse) due to different advection rates, which are functions of changes in 
hydraulic conductivity. It has been observed in many studies that dispersion factors are 
scale-dependent (Guven et. al., 1984 and Molz et. al., 1983). On a small scale (i.e., less 
than 1000 feet), dispersion is not a major factor in explaining the migration pathway. 
Over greater distances, dispersion can become an important factor. Dispersion results in 
the spreading of a contaminant and in the context of particle tracking will result in a 



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MB Bflj MB Bi 9«|| I 



wider potential pathway. Thus, the area of contamination could be wider than depicted 
by the particle tracks. 

MODFLOW tracks the groundwater particles in three dimensions, although only two 
dimensions are typically shown on a plan view particle track map. The vertical 
component of flow varies based on a number of factors, but primarily distance from the 
top of the water table mound. For a given horizontal distance along a particle track, 
particles entering the water table near the top of the mound will be found at a greater 
depth than particles entering the water table downgradient of the mound. Contaminants 
originating at the mound will have the deepest travel pathway, and contaminants 
originating downgradient of the mound will have a shallow travel pathway. 

Particle movement was modeled in both forward and reverse directions. For detections at 
or near the water table such as MW-1S, MW-16S, MW-19S, MW-25S, MW-30S, CS19- 
58MW0006E, CS19-58MW009E, CS19-58MW001 IE, and FS12-90WT0013, the reverse 
particle tracks are very short. This suggests the source of the contamination is near the 
well. If contamination was detected deeper within the aquifer the reverse particle tracks 
are longer such as MW-1M2, MW-2M2, MW-19D, and MW-23M1. Modeling the 
particle tracks backwards will result in intersection with the water table at some distance 
upgradient from the location of the detection. This intersection with the water table 
provides an approximate location where contaminants likely entered the aquifer. The 
multiple particle tracks at locations MW-1 and MW-19 reflect the multiple depths of well 
screens where explosives were detected. 

Particle tracking was also used by the USGS to develop a Zone of Contribution (ZOC) 
map for current or potential future water supply wells (Figure AG). Each designated 
ZOC represents a series of particle tracks that lead to the supply well under certain 
pumping conditions. The ZOCs do not reflect any water quality conditions, although 
their shapes may appear similar to the contaminant plumes identified under the IRP. The 
ZOCs were developed using the same model configuration as for the other particle tracks, 
as discussed in Masterson et. al. (1996). The model setup includes existing pumping 
wells acting as drains using known discharge rates. Potential future supply wells (LRWS 
wells and Bourne 95-6, 95-15) were assigned pumping rates of 400 gpm based on 
discussions with the LRWS Process Action Team. Figure AG was developed with all 
current and future wells pumping simultaneously. 

The ZOC consists of an area that is influenced under pumping conditions. Any water 
particle entering the water table in the zone of influence of the pumping well defined by 
the ZOC will end up migrating to the pumping well. In some cases, such as LRWS 3-1, 
the particle tracks end upgradient of the well. This is a result of the screen interval where 
pumping occurs being placed at some depth below the water table. Water entering the 



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aquifer near the well, although possibly influenced, will not end up in the screened 
interval. That is, the cone of depression at the pumping well doesn't result in drawdown 
of the water table to the pump intake. 

Several wells where explosives were detected are located within a ZOC of a potential 
future water supply well, as indicated in the following discussion. However, this does not 
necessarily indicate that the explosives detected at the monitoring well would migrate to 
the water supply well under pumping conditions. For example, the detection at MW- 
23M1 is at a depth for which the USGS model indicates that groundwater would flow 
under the screen at Bourne 95-6 if it was pumping at 400 gpm. This situation could 
change at a higher pumping rate. 

Just as particle tracks were used to determine the possible source areas for contaminants 
detected in a given well, the same process can be applied to wells that are 
uncontaminated. The IAGS identified 108 monitoring wells that did not contain 
detectable levels of explosives. By employing reverse particle tracks from clean wells an 
assessment can be made of what areas are not likely sources of contamination. Seeding 
particles at the top and bottom of the well screen and along the entire profile for those 
wells where groundwater profiling was performed will result in two parallel particle 
tracks. The deeper particle track will bracket the upgradient end and the shallow particle 
track will bracket the downgradient end of the uncontaminated area. Although this 
analysis was not performed in this draft of the report it is being considered for 
presentations of the results. Note that the USGS MODFLOW model does not include 
dispersion, which would bound the lateral extent of contamination allowing delineation 
of an area likely free of contamination. 

5.2.1 Explosives 

5.2.1.1 Impact Area 

The detections of RDX in monitoring wells within and west of the Impact Area are 
situated such that an area with groundwater detections is evident near the center of the 
Impact Area and extending to the northwest (Plate 1). RDX was detected in wells MW- 
1S, -1M1, -2M2, -23M1, -25S, CS19-58MW0002, CS19-58MW0006E, CS19- 
58MW0009E, and CS19-58MW001 IE. In addition, profile samples collected at the 
water table from MW-6S, -8S, and -27S also had detects of RDX, although subsequent 
sampling of well screens at the water table did not result in detects of explosives at these 
locations. One possible explanation for the difference between profile and monitoring 
well samples at these three locations is the difference in the length of the sampling 
interval, which was two feet for the profile samples and ten feet for the water table 
monitoring wells. The results from CS-19 wells are consistent with the measurements 
completed in early 1997 under the IRP. HMX was detected at CS-19 wells and at MW- 



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IS, but not at the other Impact Area wells. 

All of the above wells are screened at the water table, except for MW-1M1 (40-45 feet 
bwt), MW-2M2 (31-36 feet bwt), and MW-23M1 (99-109 feet bwt). The presence of 
RDX at these three deeper intervals is consistent with upgradient sources of 
contaminants, based on the hydrogeology of the flow system. As groundwater moves 
further from a source area, the contaminants are found deeper in the aquifer system. 
Groundwater flow is from southeast to northwest. Particle tracking with the USGS 
MODFLOW model suggests the RDX found at these three locations entered the water 
table at one or more locations on the east side of the Impact Area, near the west side of 
the water table mound (Figure AH). The reverse particle tracks end at locations not 
known to have activities which would result in the release or introduction of 
contaminants to the aquifer. 

As discussed in Section 4.6.1.3, tritium is useful in evaluating the vertical component of 
flow. Using available tritium data for MW-13 and MW-17, the depth of the tritium peak 
in relation to distance from the groundwater mound were plotted in Figure AI. The slope 
of the line suggests a vertical change of 1.7 feet for every 100 feet in the horizontal. The 
RDX detects for the Impact Area generally exhibit a similar trend, as indicated in Figure 
AI. The relationship between vertical and horizontal flow is not linear due to differences 
in recharge rates at a given location, compressibility of water, and hydraulic conductivity 
variations within the aquifer. However, the data suggests the vertical component of flow 
can be reasonably well estimated using a linear approximation. The results in Figure AI 
suggest knowing the distance from the mound of entry to the water table allows an 
estimate of the maximum possible depth of a contaminant. 

On the other hand, the water table detections at CS-19 (including MW-25S) and MW-1S 
suggest sources of contaminants located near these wells. A test pit at CS-19 indicated 
the presence of HMX in the soil, although no RDX was detected. Deeper samples at CS- 
19 did not indicate the presence of explosives in soil. The absence of RDX in the soil at 
CS-19 seems to suggest that the activities characterized at this location may be unrelated 
to the RDX measured in nearby monitoring wells. The absence of RDX at the water table 
at MW-2S, MW-3S, MW-4S, MW-5S, MW-7S, and MW-26S suggest possible northern 
and southern bounds on the locations where RDX enters the water table. 

Particle track results from the USGS model indicate that the contaminants from the 
Impact Area are headed in the direction of wells LRWS 8-2, USGS-BHW2 15083, and 
Bourne 95-6. Consistent with the particle tracks from the model and the results from 
MW-23M1, the RDX is expected to move deeper in the aquifer as the water moves 
downgradient. Since RDX has essentially no retardation it is expected to move at the 
same velocity as groundwater. Masterson et. al. (1997) have estimated the horizontal 



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hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer to be 350 ft/day. Assuming a porosity of 30 percent 
which is typical of a sand and gravel aquifer (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), using a measured 
horizontal hydraulic gradient of 0.0015 yields a groundwater flow velocity of 1.75 ft/day. 
Using this velocity and the distance from MW-23, RDX could reach the vicinity of 
Bourne well 95-6 within approximately seven years, depending on how far RDX extends 
downgradient from MW-23 at the present time. This time frame is in general agreement 
with USGS particle travel times calculated for MW-19 (Figure AJ). USGS particle track 
results suggest that RDX will reach well 95-6 below the current screened interval of 64 to 
76 feet bwt. 

The current downgradient limit of RDX in the area west of the Impact Area is unknown. 
The USGS model results suggest that there may be different sources of RDX for MW- 
2/MW-23 versus MW-l/CS-19, or even different sources for all four locations. However, 
considering the current locations where data are available, it is also possible that the RDX 
may originate from one or two common sources spanning the areas where the particle 
backtracks end. 

RDX was not detected in soil samples within the Impact Area. Extensive soil sampling at 
0-0.5 and 1.5-2 feet bgs was performed to the north and east of MW-1, around MW-2 and 
MW-26, and to the southeast of MW-27, among those areas where the groundwater 
results suggest potential source areas could be located. Deep subsurface samples were 
also collected at these four borings and at boring 25. The only explosives detected in 
these areas were PETN (grid 011 and boring 25 at 0-0.5 feet bgs) and PA (grid 02H at 0- 
0.5 feet bgs). HMX was the only explosive detected in soil at CS-19 during the IRP 
investigations, in shallow (<2 feet bgs) samples from two test pits. The CS-19 soil 
sampling from borings was at depths >5 feet, and no explosives were detected. 

The conceptual model for the fate and transport of RDX begins with particulate 
contaminants present at the soil surface. Precipitation passing through the soil dissolves 
the contaminants and carries them vertically down to the water table, a relatively slow 
process dependent on the slow rate of dissolution of RDX. Once reaching the water table 
the contaminants move horizontally and vertically with groundwater flow away from the 
groundwater mound and towards the discharge points. 

Several hypotheses are possible concerning the source of the groundwater contamination 
in the Impact Area: 

1 . There are one or more sources of RDX located in the areas suggested by the USGS 
groundwater model. Soil sampling results for Areas 2 and 3, which have not located 
any RDX in the vicinity of M W- 1 S or upgradient from M W-2M2, do not support 
this hypothesis. No soil sampling was performed in the area upgradient from the 



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MW-23M1 orMW-lMl detections. 

A possible explanation for the soil results that would support this hypothesis is if the 
contaminants were released via a washout area for munitions disposal, which could 
result in a concentrated solution of explosives being deposited on the ground. If the 
RDX and other explosives were released in solution they would not be expected to 
be retained to a significant degree on the soil. 

2. There are one or more sources of RDX located further upgradient from those 

suggested by the USGS groundwater flow model, and outside of the areas of recent 
soil sampling. Deeper groundwater sampling was not performed in these upgradient 
areas (e.g., MW-27S, MW-6S). The groundwater flow model does not support this 
hypothesis. 

It is not expected that RDX would have rapidly leached out of the surface soil in these 
areas, considering the low rate of dissolution. However, it might be possible that the 
distribution of particulate RDX is so heterogeneous that it was not collected in the recent 
soil samples even when present in an area. The limited soil results for Demo Area 1 
suggest even a concentrated source area would result in relatively low levels of RDX 
remaining in soil. Further study of the transport mechanism for explosives at Demo Area 
1 may shed light on the sources of RDX in the Impact Area. 

5.2.1.2 J Ranges 

Explosives were detected at the water table at MW-30S (HMX and 4A-DNT) and at 
FS12-90WT0013 (RDX and 2,4-DANT). These wells are on the southeastern edges of 
the J ranges. MW-30S is located within the J-3 range, and FS12-90WT0013 is located 
between the J-3 and J-l ranges. No explosives were detected in soil samples from 0-40 
feet bgs at boring 30, and no soil sampling for explosives was conducted at the FS12 
location. No groundwater sampling was performed at deeper intervals at either of these 
locations. 

Particle tracking with the USGS MODFLOW model suggests the explosives at these 
locations entered the water table near each well and will move southeast along parallel 
paths (Figure AH), discharging into Snake Pond (MW-30S) and the FS-12 Plume 
Containment System (90WT0013). The modeling results, detections of different 
explosive compounds, and presence of a "clean" water table well (90WT0003) located 
between MW-30S and 90WT0013 suggest that two different sources of contaminants are 
present. 

No explosives were detected at the FS-12 wells 90WT0004, 90MW0070, 90MW0071, 



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and 90MW0080 located downgradient from MW-30S and along its particle track. Well 
90WT0004 is completed at the water table, and 90MW0070 and 71 are completed 
between 78-87 feet bwt. The USGS particle track results suggest a path from MW-30S 
that is midway between the screen elevations of the present wells. 

No explosives were detected at the FS-12 wells 90WT0006 and 90WT0019 upgradient 
from 90WT0013, and 90MW0041, 90MW0034, and 90MW0003 downgradient from 
90WT0013. Additional sampling for explosives was performed at residential wells to the 
west of Snake Pond, although modeling results suggest that the contaminants would not 
move in this direction. No explosives were detected in the 15 water supply wells 
sampled along Arnold Drive and Snake Pond Road. 

5.2.1.3 Demolition Area 1 

The following explosive compounds were detected at the water table in MW-19S located 
at Demo Area 1 (Area 12); HMX, RDX, TNT, 2A-4,6-DNT, and 4A-2,6-DNT at 43, 180, 
10, 2.3, and 4.4 ug/L, respectively. RDX was also detected at the bottom of the aquifer in 
MW-19D at 0.4 ug/L. Groundwater profiling samples from 12 feet below the water table 
to the bottom of the aquifer did not contain explosive compounds. Demo Area 1 was the 
only location at MMR where TNT was detected in any media, and the only location 
where RDX was detected in soil. RDX was detected in samples from 0-0.5 feet, 1.5-2 
feet, and 10-12 feet bgs. RDX was also detected in a sample of storm water accumulated 
in Demo Area 1 during drilling, at 14 ug/L. RDX was not detected in soil samples 
between 12 and 44 feet bgs in boring 19. 

The RDX detections in shallow soil and storm water at Demo Area 1 , coupled with the 
relatively high detection at the water table, indicate that this area has been a source of 
groundwater contamination. The absence of RDX in deeper soils suggests that it is no 
longer a significant source of contaminants, or that contaminants are following 
preferential pathways to the water table that have not been sampled. For example, several 
craters are present in this area which have been observed to accumulate runoff and 
provide a point for infiltration to the subsurface. The RDX detection in the deep well 
would probably not be related to activities at Demo Area 1 , since water at this depth 
would have entered the water table far upgradient from this location. A USGS estimate 
for the groundwater travel time from the water table to MW-19D is in excess of 100 years 
based on tritium measurements at other wells and groundwater modeling. This age 
precedes the first known military use at Camp Edwards. Additionally, geochemical 
parameters indicate shallow and deep groundwaters are distinctly different as discussed in 
Section 4.6. Thus, the detection of RDX at MW-19D is viewed as suspect until further 
resampling, since the result is inconsistent with the conceptual model. 



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) 



The principal degradation products of TNT are 2A-DNT, 4A-DNT and 2,6-DANT. The 
compounds 2A-DNT and 4A-DNT have only been detected in soils at Demo Area 1, 
although they are present in groundwater at MW-19S, MW-30S, and CS19-58MW0002. 
The compounds 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT are not degradation products of TNT. These 
compounds are byproducts of TNT manufacture and are typically found with TNT. The 
detection of TNT in groundwater and the presence of 2A-DNT, 4A-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 
2,6-DNT in soil samples suggest that TNT is biodegrading at Demo Area 1 , following the 
degradation pathway in Figure AK. The presence of TNT in groundwater samples from 
MW-19S suggests the mass of TNT present in soil at Demo Area 1 is greater than the 
capacity of the microorganisms to completely degrade the TNT before it migrates down 
to the water table. The absence of TNT in soil could be a result of insufficient spatial 
separation of sampling locations, or the TNT has completely degraded to the daughter 
products 2A-DNT and 4A-DNT. 

An Immediate Response Plan is being implemented near Demo Area 1 to evaluate the 
extent of downgradient groundwater contamination. Particle tracking with the USGS 
MODFLOW model suggests that the explosives at MW-19S will move west and deeper 
in the aquifer. The USGS has estimated particle travel times from M W- 1 9S as depicted 
in Figure AJ. Based on the first documented use of Demo Area 1 for demolition 
activities in 1 979, the contaminants are expected to be located within the 20-year travel 
time shown in Figure AJ. Three wells are being installed along the particle track at 
distances of 500 to 4000 feet to determine downgradient concentrations of contaminants. 
MW-19S and -19D will be sampled again for explosives to confirm the initial detections 
in these wells. Additional groundwater investigations will be proposed when the results 
of this initial response are available. 

5.2. 1.4 Demolition Area 2 

The detections of RDX (1.3 ug/L) and PA (0.29 ug/L) at the water table in MW-16S 
suggest a local source of contamination, based on depth and position cross-gradient from 
the other RDX detections in groundwater. RDX was not detected in soil at Demo Area 2 
(Area 13); 2,4-DNT was the only explosive compound detected in these samples, at grid 
13F (1.5-2 feet bgs). Considering the soil and groundwater data, and the history of use 
for less frequent and smaller demolition operations, it appears Demo Area 2 has had a 
relatively limited impact on groundwater compared to Demo Area 1 . Particle tracking 
with the USGS MODFLOW model suggests the explosives at MW-16S will move north 
and deeper in the aquifer (Figure AH). 

5.2.1.5 Gun Positions 

Gun Positions (GP-) 16 (Area 16) and 7 (Area 17) had eight grid locations with 



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detections of 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT in soil samples. The only other detections of DNT 
were at Demo Area 1 (1 grid and boring) and Demo Area 2 (1 grid). GP-16 and GP-7 are 
the locations selected to represent high and medium use gun positions, respectively. The 
detection of DNT at these two positions was limited to the 0-6 inch samples, with no 
detections observed in the 1 8-24 inch samples. PETN was the only other explosive 
detected at gun positions, at one grid in Area 16. 

Ml propellant was used to fire artillery projectiles from gun positions. The nominal 
composition of Ml propellant includes 9.9 percent DNT, as well as 84.2 percent 
nitrocellulose, 4.9 percent di-n-butyl phthalate, and one percent diphenylamine 
(CHPMM, 1998). In addition to the DNT detections at gun position GP-16 and GP-7, di- 
n-butyl phthalate (11 grids) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (3 grids) were also detected. N- 
nitrosodiphenylamine is a degradation product of diphenylamine. As reported in Section 
4.4.1, there is no evidence for the presence of nitrocellulose at GP-16 or GP-7, and this 
compound is expected to rapidly degrade. The relatively high frequency of DNT 
detections and the presence of di-n-butyl phthalate and N-nitrosodiphenylamine at GP-16 
and GP-7 suggest propellant use from firing or bag burning has contributed to surface soil 
contamination. Similar findings and conclusions were drawn from a study of GP-9 at 
MMR (CHPMM, 1994) and of gun positions at Camp Grayling, Michigan (Hunt and 
Huntington, 1998). 

The detection of both DNT and di-n-butyl phthalate in the 0-6 inch samples and the lack 
thereof in the 1 8-24 inch samples is consistent with the known fate-and-transport 
properties of these two compounds. The fate-and-transport characteristics indicate that the 
DNTs have the potential to be mobile but are susceptible to biological degradation and 
photodegradation. Diphenylamine is a reactive compound and is also expected to not 
migrate significantly in the vertical direction. 

The contaminants present in the surface soil are predominantly located in the firing area 
or at the rear of the position, near the access road. The control samples from both 
locations indicate an absence of DNT, di-n-butyl phthalate, and N-nitrosodiphenylamine. 
In Area 16, the horizontal extent of explosives-related compounds appears to be limited 
to the northern half of the site, encompassing an area of approximately 45,000 ft 2 . In Area 
1 7 the entire firing area appears to have been impacted, comprising an area of 
approximately 75,000 ft 2 . 

Conclusions about whether the contaminants can be attributed to propellant bag burning 
or atmospheric deposition from vapors expended from the gun cannot be directly drawn. 
However, it seems likely that the mass of unused propellant material burned is far in 
excess of the vapors expended by firing the gun. CHPMM (1994) reports that only 30 
percent of the propellant bags were needed to fire the projectile the desired distance at 



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MMR with the remaining 70 percent burned. Additionally, the combustion reaction is 
likely to be more efficient during firing the weapon (i.e. explosion) versus burning so that 
most of the propellant material is likely to be consumed during firing of the projectile. 

5.2.1.6 Other Explosives Detections 

In addition to the detections summarized above, explosives were detected at two soil 
sampling locations on the southern half of the Impact Area. This includes PETN at grid 
06C, and PA and 2-NT at boring 8. Area 6 does not appear to be near any primary targets 
for artillery or mortar fire. Boring 8 is located approximately 1000 feet south and east of 
the known Impact Area targets (Ogden, 1998b). 

5.2.2 Volatile Organic Compounds 

As discussed in Section 4, VOCs were not widely detected in soils or groundwater, nor 
were the limited detections at elevated concentrations. See Section 4.4.2.2 for a 
discussion of the detections of acetone, chloroform, and toluene. Fate and transport 
processes for low levels of TCE and chloroform in surface soil and groundwater are 
discussed below. 

TCE was detected in a number of surface soil samples but not in deeper soil samples. 
Given the fate characteristics of TCE and the site conditions (soil with very low organic 
carbon content, i.e. sand) the presence of TCE in surface soil samples is unlikely. The 
high volatility of TCE and the low organic carbon content of the soil make it unlikely that 
it is present in surface soil samples. TCE's preference is to partition into the vapor phase 
from water under unsaturated conditions. Given the sandy nature of the soil, air exchange 
between the soil and atmosphere would result in depletion of the TCE from the air or 
water phase. The likely explanation for the presence of TCE in soil at very low levels is 
due to laboratory cross contamination as discussed in Section 4.4. Even if the detects of 
TCE are considered representative of soil, the concentration of TCE reported was less 
than 5 ug/kg. Given the low concentration and sporadic nature of detects it is unlikely 
sufficient mass of TCE is available for transport to the aquifer. TCE was detected in 
several groundwater samples near CS-19, a known TCE release site, at concentrations 
less than 5 ug/L. 

Benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) compounds were detected at low levels on the east 
side of MMR downgradient of the groundwater high. The pattern of detects is not 
consistent with a release at the groundwater mound, i.e. shallow contamination near the 
mound and deeper contamination downgradient. The environmental fate and transport 
properties of these petroleum constituents are similar to TCE. They are highly volatile 
and easily partition from the water phase to the air phase. The main exception is BTX 



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compounds are more susceptible to biodegradation under both anaerobic and aerobic 
conditions. Thus, except at very high concentrations migration of BTX is typically 
limited to a distance of less than 1 000 feet from the source area and is not highly 
persistent in terms of length of time present in groundwater (Rice et al., 1995). The deep 
detects of BTX are difficult to explain given the understanding of groundwater flow at 
MMR: deep groundwater is in excess of 100 years old. USGS particle tracking of deep 
BTX detects back up to the water table results in flow paths in excess of several thousand 
feet which is in conflict with the fate-and-transport properties for BTX compounds. None 
of these compounds were detected at levels above health-based criteria. 

Chloroform is present at concentrations up to 6 ug/1. Its environmental fate-and-transport 
properties are similar to TCE. It is noted chloroform has been detected widely in 
groundwater on the Upper Cape, apparently resulting from discharge of treated water to 
the ground. The relationship of the chloroform detections in this study to the regional 
distribution of this contaminant is unknown at this time. 

5. 2. 3 Sem i- Volatile Organic Compo unds 

The non-chlorinated hydrocarbons such as SVOCs and PCBs have low to moderate 
solubilities. These compounds in general are highly adsorbed or complexed with soil. A 
subset of SVOCs is PAHs, which are generally found in fuels. The compounds may 
bioaccumulate in organisms in surface waters. They vary substantially in their potential 
to biodegrade. The overall tendency for these compounds is for low mobility in the 
environment. As discussed in Section 4, a number of SVOCs, primarily PAHs and 
phthalates, have been detected in surface soil samples. However, with the exception of 
BEHP, no SVOC has been detected in groundwater. This result is consistent with the 
environmental fate and transport of SVOCs. SVOCs do not move substantially once 
introduced into the subsurface. 

As discussed in Section 4.4.2.3, there is substantial evidence to indicate detections of 
BEHP in groundwater are the result of laboratory cross contamination and not the result 
of site contamination. A statistical t-test was performed on the groundwater SVOC data 
with the hypothesis being that the populations of background and Impact Area 
groundwater samples were different. The analysis indicated no statistical difference in 
the two populations of data. This result further indicates BEHP detections do not 
represent groundwater contamination. 

5. 2. 4 Pesticides and Herbicides 

The fate and transport of the pesticides and herbicides are similar to the SVOCs. They 
generally have a low solubility, less than 1 mg/L, and can be complexed and adsorbed 



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with soil. Most of the pesticide and herbicide compounds photodegrade rapidly in the 
atmosphere. However, their relatively low Henry's constant suggest volatilization is 
limited. Once introduced into the subsurface soil these compounds can persist for 
considerable lengths of time (years) unless they biodegrade. Typically, biodegradation 
occurs under anaerobic conditions but most compounds are resistant to biodegradation. 
Once introduced into groundwater they can be relatively mobile. However, their low 
solubilities usually result in very low concentrations detected in groundwater. 

A herbicide study was conducted at MMR using the compounds 2,4-D, picloram, and 
triclopyr (Deubert, 1985). The study found that the loading of herbicide to the soil from 
spray application was a function of the density of vegetation, and rainfall. Under high 
rates of infiltration the herbicides entered the soil column up to a depth of three feet. 
Degradation of the herbicides apparently prevented deeper penetration. The study results 
are consistent with the findings of the IAGS. 

As discussed in Section 4, a number of pesticides, mainly 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, and 
alpha-BHC were detected in surface soil samples. 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT were widely 
used to control insects and historically were applied directly to soil and surface waters. 
4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT are strongly adsorbed to soil and only slightly soluble in water, 
which may explain why these compounds were not detected in any groundwater samples. 
4,4'-DDT degrades to 4,4'-DDE under aerobic conditions very slowly via a 
dehydrochlorination reaction. The half-life of 4,4'-DDT in soil ranges from 2 to >15 
years (Liechtenstein and Schulz, 1959 and Stewart and Chrisholm, 1971). These 
compounds were present in soils at most of the areas sampled. It seems likely, 
considering the background sample results, that low levels of pesticides are present in 
surface soils throughout the Upper Cape. 

The herbicides detected most frequently in soils were MCPA, 2,4,5-T, and dicamba. 
None of these compounds were detected in groundwater, although MCPP, which is a 
degradation product of MCPA, was detected in Bourne well 95-6. The three most 
frequently detected herbicides were also detected in one or more background soil 
samples. 

Three of the five pesticide and herbicide detections in groundwater occurred in wells 
located around the western perimeter of MMR near a major power line corridor (Bourne 
95-6, 95-15, and BHW2 15083). Alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and dieldrin were the pesticides 
detected, and MCPP was the herbicide detected in these wells. The groundwater 
detections coupled with the known use of pesticides along the power line corridor seem to 
suggest a possible relationship. Soil samples were not collected along the power line. 
However, sediment samples were collected from several ponds located near the power 
line corridor. MCPA was detected in sediment samples from the Rod and Gun Club 



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North Pond, and dieldrin and MCPA were detected in sediment samples from the Little 
Halfway Pond, Cranberry Bog, and Deep Bottom Pond. Beta-BHC was detected in a 
surface water sample from Donnely Pond. 

The other detections in groundwater were PCP at MW-23M3, and endrin aldehyde at 
MW-29S. These detections are difficult to explain in terms of results for surrounding soil 
samples. PCP was not present in the two soil samples or water table well at the same 
location (MW-23S), nor were there any soil samples upgradient from this well. Endrin 
aldehyde was not detected in the three soil samples analyzed for pesticides from this 
boring, nor were there any other soil samples upgradient from this well. 

5. 2. 5 Inorganics and Metals 

Inorganics do not degrade since they are elements, but are subject to chemical reactions 
and sorption. Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc 
are known as heavy metals. The trace metals include barium, beryllium, boron, cobalt, 
molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and vanadium. Metals normally only 
occur in trace amounts in uncontaminated aquifers, and have somewhat similar fate and 
transport properties. The oxidation state of groundwater (generally the oxygen content), 
pH, solubility, type and amount of organic matter, clay, and sorption onto inorganic 
surfaces will control their occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater in the Impact 
Area is generally oxidizing, slightly acidic, and low in total dissolved solids (TDS), so 
that heavy metals would be immobile. 

Aluminum, iron, and manganese commonly are present as solids suspended in 
groundwater samples. These metals are common elements present in the Earth's crust. 
Iron and manganese oxyhydroxide coatings are often present on gravel material 
associated with glacial-alluvial deposits. Aluminum is present in many clays. Suspended 
solids can result from the installation of monitoring wells or from naturally occurring 
colloids. In low permeability formations it is often difficult to adequately develop a well 
to eliminate all suspended solids resulting from well installation. Several data analysis 
methods are useful to discern the reliability of the total metal analysis as an indicator of 
contamination. Iron and manganese are ubiquitous in the Sagamore lens aquifer. The 
subsurface iron exists as ferric hydroxide, which is insoluble. In the absence of organics 
in groundwater causing reducing conditions, iron will be immobile in the subsurface. 
Secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) developed by EPA exist for 
aluminum, iron, and manganese at 50 to 200, 300, and 50 ug/L, respectively. SMCLs are 
drinking water guidelines governing the taste, odor, color, and certain non-aesthetic 
properties of drinking water. The majority of the well samples exceeded the SMCLs for 
aluminum, iron, and manganese. 



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A comparison of the filtered and unfiltered metals results indicates most metals are in the 
dissolved state with the exception of aluminum, iron, and possibly zinc. Aluminum and 
iron are common constituents of colloidal material, usually clay, which is present in the 
aquifer and often measured as turbidity. Zinc is not typically present as a constituent of 
clay. However, the highest zinc results occurred in the Long Range Water Supply wells 
and the Bourne 95-6 and 95-15 wells, which were constructed of galvanized steel. 
Galvanized steel contains a zinc coating. 

The anions of interest are nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and phosphate. Nitrate, sulfate, and 
chloride tend to be relatively mobile in groundwater. Their environmental fate is 
dependent on the aquifer matrix and interactions with this material. Phosphate tends to 
be a limiting agent in biological reactions and thus tends to be consumed in surface water 
environments. Phosphate mobility may be more limited in groundwater due to surface 
reactions, precipitation on solids, and biological uptake. The groundwater inorganics 
concentrations are compared with drinking water standards in Section 5.1 of this report 
(antimony, lead, molybdenum, thallium, and sodium exceed health-based criteria). 

The metal and field parameter information is also useful to evaluate the potential of 
mixing of recently recharged groundwater with older groundwater. If the data shows a 
distinct chemical difference between younger water, near the water table, and older water, 
located deeper in the aquifer, then this would suggest isolated units of water with little or 
no vertical mixing. If this is the case, then it is not unlikely that contaminants emanating 
from the Impact Area and Training Ranges would reach great depths within the Impact 
Area. Currently, the USGS flow model suggests that within the Impact Area flow paths 
are relatively shallow. As discussed in Section 4.6.1.3, this is supported by the tritium 
profile data which indicates the 1 963 bomb peak to be approximately 70 to 115 feet 
below the water table. Water deeper than 1 15 to 189 ft is likely older than 50 years. 
Only as one moves downgradient and further offsite do the particle paths go deeper into 
the aquifer before rising again as groundwater discharges into oceanic water. However, 
the USGS groundwater model suggests deep groundwater near bedrock is isolated from 
water entering at the mound. 

A statistical analysis of the metals and field parameter data was performed to assess if 
geochemical differences in groundwater quality parameters were evident. Results of 
these evaluations are provided in the following subsections. The evaluations included a 
subset of the metals which are believed to be present in munitions at the highest 
concentrations: aluminum, chromium, copper, lead, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc. 

5.2.5.1 Aluminum 

The aluminum results reported in Section 4.6.2.2 are consistent with uncontaminated 



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groundwater, although background levels were lower than those wells completed in and 
around the Impact Area and Training Ranges. As mentioned previously in Section 
4.6.2.2 the results between total (unfiltered) and dissolved (filtered) aluminum are 
statistically different at a level of significance of pO.OOl. In general, the total aluminum 
values are four times higher than their dissolved counterpart with an average difference of 
587 ug/L. Thus, the data indicates a large degree of suspended material containing 
aluminum in the total metal analysis. Hem (1989) reports the most common of the 
sedimentary aluminum enriched minerals is clay. 

Turbidity is a measurement of the amount of suspended material present in solution. A 
correlation analysis between total aluminum and turbidity yielded a correlation 
coefficient of r=0.81 at a level of significance of p<0.0001 for n=108 samples. As 
expected, no correlation was evident between dissolved aluminum and turbidity. 
Development of monitoring wells in fine material, such as clay and silt, to remove the 
small diameter particles is difficult. The decreased permeability of these materials 
restricts the amount of energy that can be distributed into the formation to develop the 
well and remove the fine material permeating the sand pack around the well screen. Even 
with low flow sampling techniques, such as was employed in the IAGS, turbidity levels 
can be higher than desired. The physical act of lowering a pump into a well, albeit 
slowly, can result in re-suspension of particulates present in the well casing which take 
several hours to settle out (Kearl et al., 1992). Increased turbidity indicates solids are in 
suspension which typically consist of clays. The clays are usually aluminosilicates which 
are rich in metals, particularly aluminum, iron, and manganese. These three metals 
constitute 8.2, 5.6, and 0.1 percent of the metals in the Earth's crust. Thus, the 
suspension of solids in the well bore is an artifact of well construction which contributes 
to an increase in total aluminum levels. 

The background wells have lower total aluminum levels than the wells completed in the 
Impact Area and Training Ranges. The background wells, for the most part, have been in 
place for several years. The lower turbidity levels and total aluminum levels are likely a 
function of the time for the monitoring well to equilibrate with its surroundings. Also, 
the majority of background wells were completed at the water table and thus are expected 
to have lower turbidity than the deep wells. Table 81 indicates the mean and median 
turbidity levels of the background and shallow wells is lower than the deep wells. 

The average total aluminum values also varied by depth. The deep monitoring well 
samples had statistically significant higher total aluminum levels than the intermediate 
wells. As will be discussed later, a weak correlation was found between turbidity levels 
and depth. Higher turbidity was found in the deeper wells and a similar pattern is seen 
for total aluminum. However, this is the opposite of what would be expected if 
aluminum was the result of Impact Area and Training Ranges activities. In addition, no 



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pattern of aluminum concentrations is evident when spatially mapping the data from the 
shallow wells. Thus, the data suggest elevated total aluminum above background is a 
function of the degree of turbidity and is not a result of Impact Area or Training Range 
activities. 

5.2.5.2 Chromium 

Similar to the aluminum results total chromium levels were higher than the dissolved 
chromium. A statistical test indicates the difference is highly significant. Furthermore, 
the highest total chromium levels were present in the deep wells which was statistically 
different than the results for the medium and shallow wells. Similar mechanisms 
responsible for the aluminum trends are believed to apply to the chromium results. Total 
chromium was positively correlated to turbidity with a r= 0.72 at a level of significance 
of pO.OOOl for n=108. Thus, the greater turbidity of the sample the higher the total 
chromium concentration. No statistical differences were seen between the background 
wells and the wells completed in and around the Impact Area. 

5.2.5.3 Copper 

As indicated in Section 4.6.2.2 the level of copper in groundwater is not significantly 
different for both the total and dissolved component. This result indicates the detectable 
levels of copper are most likely representative of a dissolved species and not a particulate. 
However, it does seem that turbidity levels also can influence total copper levels. A 
strong positive correlation of r=0.77 with a level of confidence of pO.OOOl for n=108 
was found between total copper and turbidity. No difference was seen between 
background levels and samples collected in and around the Impact Area. Additionally, 
no differences in copper levels were evident for wells completed at different depths. 

5.2.5.4 Iron 

The total and dissolved iron results are significantly different with a mean difference of 
1426 ug/L. This result is similar to the aluminum and chromium results indicating total 
iron is reflective of the turbidity of the sample. Total iron was found to be strongly 
correlated with turbidly with a correlation coefficient of r =0.83 at a level of significance 
of pO.OOOl for n=108 samples. As expected filtering the sample eliminates the 
correlation between turbidity and the dissolved iron. Total iron and total aluminum were 
correlated with a correlation coefficient of r=0.64 at a level of significance of pO.OOOl 
for n=108 samples. As mentioned earlier iron and aluminum are the primary elements 
present in clay. No statistically significant difference was found between background 
iron levels and wells completed in and around the Impact Area. No significant difference 
in iron levels was evident based on the depth of the well. 



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5.2.5.5 Lead 

The results for lead are similar to the copper results. The level of lead in groundwater is 
not significantly different for both the total and dissolved component. This result 
indicates the detectable levels of lead are most likely representative of a dissolved species 
and not a particulate. No difference was seen between background levels and samples 
collected in and around the Impact Area, with the exception of an elevated lead level 
measured at MW-2S. Additionally, no differences in lead levels were evident for wells 
completed at different depths, with the exception of MW-2S. 

A study of berms at firing ranges at MMR found most lead contamination limited to the 
top 1 feet of soil with no indication that lead had migrated to groundwater (Bricka, 
1996). Modeling conducted by Bricka (1996) indicated that conditions are favorable for 
lead migration through the soil, however the thickness of the unsaturated zone and rate of 
migration limited lead reaching the aquifer in less than 150 to 300 years. The results of 
Bricka (1996) are consistent with the findings of this study which generally indicate no 
elevated levels of lead in groundwater above background conditions. 

The total lead concentration of 20 ug/1 at M W-2S exceeded the MCL of 1 5 ug/1 for this 
metal. The detection at the water table indicates that the source of this contaminant is 
located near MW-2. The sample at this location exhibited elevated turbidity (480 NTU), 
and elevated concentrations of iron and aluminum. The dissolved lead concentration at 
MW-2S was 20.1 ug/1. 

5. 2. 5. 6 Manganese 

The results for manganese are similar to the copper and lead results. The level of 
manganese in groundwater is not significantly different for both the total and dissolved 
component. Additionally, the total and dissolved manganese results are highly correlated 
with a correlation coefficient of r=0.93 at a level of significance of p<0.0001 for n=108 
samples. This result indicates the detectable levels of manganese are most likely 
representative of a dissolved species and not a particulate. No difference was seen 
between background levels and samples collected in and around the Impact Area. 
Additionally, no differences in manganese levels were evident for wells completed at 
different depths. 

5.2.5.7 Nickel 

The results for nickel are similar to the copper, lead, and manganese results. The level of 
nickel in groundwater is not significantly different for both the total and dissolved 



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■ 



component. This result indicates the detectable levels of nickel are most likely 
representative of a dissolved species and not a particulate. No difference was seen 
between background levels and samples collected in and around the Impact Area. 
Additionally, no differences in nickel levels were evident for wells completed at different 
depths. 

5.2.5.8 Zinc 

The results for zinc are similar to the copper, lead, manganese, and nickel results. The 
level of nickel in groundwater is not significantly different for both the total and 
dissolved component. This result indicates the detectable levels of nickel are most likely 
representative of a dissolved species and not a particulate. No differences in nickel levels 
were evident for wells completed at different depths. However, as mentioned in Section 
4.6.2.2 the zinc levels in the background wells were higher than from wells in and around 
the Impact Area. 

A statistically significantly difference was evident for both the total and dissolved 
fraction of zinc with the background wells having a mean difference of 141 1 ug/L for 
total zinc and 1368 for dissolved zinc. Eight of the background wells were LRWS which 
were constructed of galvanized steel which contains zinc. Contact of the groundwater 
with the galvanized steel well casing results in dissolution of zinc. As a consequence, all 
of the background wells had elevated levels of zinc (Plate 5). The LRWS wells were not 
designed for water quality measurements but rather as observation wells for pump tests. 
At the time of selection of the background wells it was unknown that the LRWS wells 
had been constructed of galvanized steel. 

5. 2. 5. 9 Field Parameters 

Table 8 1 is a comparison of field parameter results for all wells, background wells, and 
those separated by depths. Statistical comparisons between the background wells and all 
other wells indicated no differences for any of the field parameters. Additionally, no 
differences were noted when the wells were segregated by depth. These results suggest 
the field parameters are not useful as indicator parameters for explosive contamination. 

The field parameter values were found to vary by depth which was statistically 
significant. The mean and median D. O. and redox values indicate a decrease in oxygen 
levels as depth increases with a shift from an aerobic system at the water table to an 
anaerobic system at depth. A correlation analysis indicates a weak negative correlation 
between depth with D.O. and redox. The correlation coefficient D.O. to depth is r = -0.3 1 
at a level of significance of p = 0.006 for n=87 samples. The correlation of redox to 
depth is r = -0.59 with a p < 0.0001 for n = 1 16. An analysis of variance test was 



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conducted to assess whether D.O. and redox at shallow and deep depths was significantly 
different. Both D. O. and redox levels were found to be highly significant different 
between shallow and deep groundwater. The mean difference between shallow 
groundwater and deep groundwater D.O. measurements is 3.19 mg/L. The mean 
difference between shallow groundwater and deep groundwater redox measurements is 
287 mv. Groundwater is replenished with oxygen via recharge from precipitation events 
which results in higher oxygen levels at the water table. Microorganisms present in 
groundwater consume oxygen lowering the D.O. concentration. The longer groundwater 
is out of contact with the atmosphere and recharge containing oxygen the lower the 
oxygen levels. The D. O. and redox results suggest deep groundwater has been out of 
contact with the atmosphere for a period of time and is not mixing with overlying 
groundwater to a significant degree. 

Similarly, pH levels increase with depth indicating longer contact times with surrounding 

lithologic material. A statistical test found pH and depth to be correlated at r = 0.69 with 

a p < 0.0001 for n = 117. An analysis of variance test indicates pH levels between 

shallow and deep groundwater are significantly different. The mean difference in pH 

levels is 1.30 units. As the contact time between groundwater and the surrounding (£)•, 

lithologic material increases the groundwater equilibrates to its environment. Salts 

present in the rock are leached into solution buffering the pH. 

Changes in groundwater temperature with depth were not significantly different. 
However, turbidity levels increased with depth which is consistent with the lithologic 
profile of material at the site, which generally becomes increasingly fine with depth. A 
correlation test between depth and turbidity found a weak correlation of r = 0.27 with p - 
0.01 for n=87. An analysis of variance test found a mean difference of 0.38 NTU which 
was statistically significant. 

The field parameter results are consistent with the tritium and groundwater modeling 
transport results indicating a difference between groundwater at shallow and deep depths. 
Based on the tritium profile data, groundwater deeper than 1 15 to 189 feet below the 
water table is in excess of 50 years old. This data and the groundwater flow model can be 
used to provide insight on the potential sources of contaminants identified at a given 
location in the aquifer. 



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■ 3 



6. Conclusions and Recommendations 

6.1 Conclusions 

Ogden completed an I AGS on behalf of the NGB, pursuant to the Final Action Plan 
(ETA, 1997) and subsequent FSPs (Ogden, 1997f- 1997q and Ogden, 1998a- 1998d) 
approved by EPA and MADEP. The study included: 

438 hand auger samples representing 3942 individual locations; 

280 soil boring profile samples ; 

75 sediment samples from water bodies; 

69 surface water samples from water bodies; 

6 storm water samples from the perimeter of the Impact Area; 

295 groundwater profiling samples from borings; and 

128 groundwater samples from 122 wells. 

The results of this work are described in Section 4 of this report and indicate the 
following: 

Soils 

• With the exception of Demo Area 1 and the gun positions, few areas had detections of 
explosive compounds (28 samples out of 520 soil samples analyzed for explosives for 
all areas). 

• Soil at Demo Area 1 exhibited the presence of RDX, HMX, and TNT breakdown 
products as a result of open burning or detonation of explosives. 

• Soil at the high and medium use gun positions exhibited the presence of DNT as a 
result of open burning or firing of propellants. 

• The CRREL screening method is not appropriate for future soil investigations at the 
Training Ranges and Impact Area, considering the very low levels of explosives 
detected in this study. 

• Many of the detected metals were measured at concentrations exceeding the proposed 
background criteria. However, the proposed criteria should be reconsidered in view 
of the relatively low background values for soil, compared with other background 
studies and crustal averages. 

• VOCs (particularly acetone, TCE, methylene chloride, and toluene) detected at low 
levels in soil appear to be laboratory artifacts rather than detections resulting from 
environmental releases. 

4^ • SVOCs detected in soil consisted mainly of PAHs and phthalates, although several 

phenolic compounds were also detected. BEHP was the SVOC detected most 
frequently although these detections appear to laboratory artifacts. 



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• Pesticide and herbicide compounds are present throughout the study area including 
background sampling locations, and appear to be largely related to historic 
applications across the Upper Cape for pest control or transmission line right-of-way. 

Groundwater 

• Explosive compounds were detected at several locations in the aquifer, and appear to 
be limited to within the MMR property boundary. The highest concentrations of 
RDX were measured at MW-19S located at Demo Area 1. Demo Area 2 appears to be 
less impacted with only low levels of RDX present in the groundwater. 

• Limited detections of explosives in excess of health advisories occurred at the CS-19 
area and at several wells extending northwest from near the center of the Impact Area. 

• Antimony, lead, molybdenum, sodium, and thallium were detected in groundwater at 
concentrations above health-based criteria at several locations. These detections 
appear to be isolated with no discernible spatial trends. 

• Chloroform was widely detected in groundwater at low levels throughout the study 
area, including background locations. Chloroform is believed to be present in 
groundwater on Cape Cod as a result of sources and distribution mechanisms separate 
from any activities at Camp Edwards. 

• Other VOCs (mainly acetone, toluene, and xylenes) were detected only sporadically 
and at low levels in groundwater. The pattern of detections and other evidence 
supports the possibility that these detections are laboratory artifacts. 

• S VOCs, with the exception of BEHP, were not detected in groundwater. There is 
overwhelming evidence that the BEHP detections are laboratory artifacts. 

• Pesticides and herbicides were detected in groundwater at a few locations at low 
levels, mainly near the western boundary of MMR along a power transmission line 
right-of-way. 

Surface Water, Sediment, and Storm Water 

• No explosive compounds were detected in surface water samples, including samples 
from within the Impact Area. 

• Nitroglycerin was detected in a sediment sample from the J-3 Wetland. 

• The distribution of other compounds in water bodies and runoff was similar to the 
distribution in soil samples. 

Based on the field investigations conducted to date, it is not apparent training activities 
(other than possibly demolition training) have contributed to contamination of surface 
and subsurface soil sufficient to impact the underlying aquifer. The only significant 
detections of explosives in groundwater directly related to the presence of explosives in 
surface soil is at Demo Area 1 , an area of intense munition demolition. Sources of the 



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m : 



scattered detections of inorganics that exceed health-based criteria are unclear at this 
time. Other detections of compounds in groundwater, such as chloroform, BEHP, 
pesticides, and herbicides have not been directly related to training activities. Area-wide 
distribution of these compounds, and laboratory cross-contamination, are plausible and 
likely explanations for these detections. 

6.2 Recommendations 

Recommendations for additional work based on these results include the following: 

• Focus additional investigations on Demo Area 1 . A response plan is currently being 
implemented for this area. Continue efforts to characterize the source and extent of 
this contamination in both soil and groundwater as needed. Initiate studies to better 
understand the fate and transport of explosive compounds. Continue to utilize the 
USGS flow model to identify areas of investigation and focus on appropriate depths 
in the aquifer. 

• Initiate investigations of the other detections of explosives in groundwater, at M W- 1 , 
MW-2, MW-23, MW-30, and FS-12. Although concentrations of explosives in these 
areas are at least ten times lower than at Demo Area 1 , some of these areas may also 
pose threats to current or future drinking water supplies. Investigations could include 
upgradient and downgradient wells sampled for explosive compounds. 

• Focus future groundwater investigations in the Impact Area on the principal 
contaminants of concern, namely the explosive compounds and, in a few areas, 
specific metals. Results of the current study indicate that VOC, SVOC, pesticide, and 
herbicide analytes are not associated with contaminants in these areas and need not be 
included in these investigations. 



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«--? *™ 







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Parker, E. 1997. Personal Communication. Jacobs Engineering. Otis ANGB, MA. 

Perwak J., M. Goyer, and G. Schimke. 1981. An Exposure and Risk Assessment for 
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Rathbun R.E., D.W. Stephens, and D. J. Schultz. 1982. Fate of acetone in water. 
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Sabljic A. 1984. Predictions of the nature and strength of soil sorption of organic 
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Sheldon L. S. and R. A. Hites. 1979. Sources and movement of organic chemicals in 
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Draft Completion of Work Report 



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L:\MMR\REPORTS\Final\drftcwrl.doc -150- July 1, 1998 



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so 




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(Sq. Feet) 


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CN 

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wo 
CN 

SO 
CN 


O 
wo 
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o 
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(Sq. Feet) 


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cs 
in 

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CS 

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■<fr 

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co 
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Table 2 



UXO Surface Clearance 



Area 


Landmark 


Size 
(Sq. Feet) 


UXO 


Quantity 


1 


MW-3 


9,000 






2 


MW-2, 
MW-26 


59,600 






3 


MW-1 


15,000 






4 


MW-27 


7,650 






6 


MW-7 


15,000 






7 


MW-8 


13,800 






8 


Succonsette 
Pond 


13,860 


2.36" rocket HEAT 


1 


11 


MW-25 


33,480 






12 


MW-1 9 


4,500 






13 


MW-1 6 


6,550 






14 


Control 


4,500 






15 


Site 6 


1,800 






16 


GP-16 


10,800 






17 


GP-7 


10,800 






18 


GP-18 


7,200 






19 


MP-8 


2,700 


40mm M918 Training 


1 


20 


MP-6 


2,100 






21 


MP-3, MP-5 


9,000 






22 


OP-5,6,7 


4,500 








Tank Alley 
Grids 


33,075 








Turpentine 
Road Grids 


5,580 
















Totals 




270,495 




2 



HEAT- High Explosive Anti-Tank 



♦ 



Table 3 



Monitoring Well Construction Detail 



# 



i 



Well ID 


Measure 
Point 


Elevation 
(ft NGVD) 


Northing 


Easting 


Screen Elevation 
(ft NGVD) 


MW-1S 


PVC 


186.95 


280088.062 


829359.544 


72.75-62.75 


MW-1M1 


PVC 


187.07 


280088.062 


829359.544 


26.73-21.73 


MW-1M2 


PVC 


186.22 


280088.062 


829359.544 


-33.27 to -38.27 


MW-1D 


PVC 


186.73 


280088.062 


829359.544 


-103.28 to -113.28 


MW-2S 


PVC 


207.26 


280007.031 


830240.75 


70.19-60.19 


MW-2M1 


PVC 


210.03 


280007.031 


830240.75 


37.02-32.02 


MW-2M2 


PVC 


206.94 


280007.031 


830240.75 


-4.96 to -9.96 


MW-2D 


PVC 


209.77 


280007.031 


830240.75 


-147.70 to -152.70 


MW-3S 


PVC 


116.99 


280035.398 


830700.754 


72.99 - 62.99 


MW-3M1 


PVC 


116.91 


280035.398 


830700.754 


-125.76 to -130.76 


MW-3M2 


PVC 


116.94 


280035.398 


830700.754 


-65.77 to -70.77 


MW-3D 


PVC 


116.61 


280035.398 


830700.754 


-145.39 to -150.39 


MW-4S 


PVC 


208.00 


280698.31 


830767.978 


71.00-61.00 


MW-5S 


PVC 


186.57 


281598.594 


830281.313 


65.00-55.00 


MW-5M1 


PVC 


186.88 


281598.594 


830281.313 


-1.12 to -6.12 


MW-5M2 


PVC 


186.06 


281598.594 


830281.313 


-23.94 to -28.94 


MW-5D 


PVC 


186.77 


281598.594 


830281.313 


-151.17 to-156.17 


MW-6S 


PVC 


181.92 


281080.229 


828888.681 


75.92-65.92 


MW-7S 


PVC 


176.46 


280103.689 


828542.073 


73.36-63.36 


MW-7M1 


PVC 


176.65 


280103.689 


828542.073 


6.36- 1.36 


MW-7M2 


PVC 


176.80 


280103.689 


828542.073 


-63.26 to -68.26 


MW-7D 


PVC 


176.46 


280103.689 


828542.073 


-155.71 to-165.71 


MW-8S 


PVC 


176.20 


279540.344 


828996.438 


73.20-63.20 


MW-9S 


PVC 


182.71 


278990.817 


829395.852 


69.71-59.71 


MW-10S 


PVC 


207.56 


279696.68 


831772.992 


65.66-55.66 


MW-10M 


PVC 


207.19 


279696.68 


831772.992 


-72.69 to -77.96 


MW-10D 


PVC 


207.55 


279696.68 


831772.992 


-156.52 to -166.52 


MW-11S 


PVC 


194.16 


281679.419 


830692.925 


72.16-62.16 


MW-12S 


PVC 


171.74 


281906.732 


829206.12 


75.04-65.04 


MW-13S 


PVC 


147.15 


281099.844 


828339.313 


74.08-64.08 


MW-13D 


PVC 


147.17 


281099.844 


828339.313 


-73.05 to -78.05 


MW-14S 


PVC 


170.89 


279743.17 


828171.034 


74.08-64.08 


MW-15S 


PVC 


174.87 


278710.611 


829215.556 


69.80 - 64.80 


MW-15D 


PVC 


174.84 


278710.611 


829215.556 


-149.20 to -159.20 


MW-16S 


PVC 


186.35 


280880.769 


832737.595 


64.14-54.14 


MW-16D 


PVC 


180.93 


280880.769 


832737.595 


-165.92 to -170.92 


MW-17S 


PVC 


180.93 


281371.636 


832236.821 


69.14-59.14 


MW-17D 


PVC 


180.76 


281371.636 


832236.821 


-136.02 to -146.02 



Page 1 of 2 



Table 3 



Monitoring Well Construction Detail 



Well ID 


Measure 
Point 


Elevation 
(ft NGVD) 


Northing 


Easting 


Screen Elevation 
(ft NGVD) 


MW-18S 


PVC 


102.38 


283306.882 


831207.826 


70.72-60.72 


MW-18M1 


PVC 


105.14 


283306.882 


831207.826 


-114 to -119.87 


MW-18M2 


PVC 


105.13 


283306.882 


831207.826 


-106.87 to -11 1.87 


MW-18D 


PVC 


102.12 


283306.882 


831207.826 


-159.29 to -169.29 


MW-19S 


PVC 


111.39 


279377.052 


827528.323 


73.14-63.14 


MW19D 


PVC 


108.53 


279377.052 


827528.323 


-182.08 to -187.08 


MW-20S 


PVC 


164.87 


278320.825 


827455.699 


72.87-62.87 


MW-21S 


PVC 


236.51 


278027.809 


828334.943 


72.32-62.32 


MW-21D 


PVC 


233.52 


278027.809 


828334.943 


-65.71 to -55.71 


MW-22S 


PVC 


238.92 


278111.731 


829734.554 


65.68-55.68 


MW-23S 


PVC 


186.53 


278397.774 


831146.418 


63.07-53.07 


MW-23M1 


PVC 


185.72 


278397.774 


831146.418 


-39.28 to -49.28 


MW-23M2 


PVC 


185.83 


278397.774 


831146.418 


-3.17to-13.17 


MW-23M3 


PVC 


185.95 


278397.774 


831146.418 


29.95-19.95 


MW-23D 


PVC 


183.29 


278397.774 


831146.418 


-86.44 to -96.44 


MW-24S 


PVC 


57.94 


275921.875 


826752.375 


49.06-39.06 


MW-25S 


PVC 


179.68 


279592.647 


829347.217 


71.68-61.68 


MW-26S 


PVC 


201.09 


280200.175 


829947.735 


72.09 - 62.09 


MW-27S 


PVC 


190.25 


280578.429 


829322.399 


73.35-63.35 


MW-28S 


PVC 


169.02 


280521.384 


827936.204 


73.85-63.85 


MW-29S 


PVC 


174.04 


281766.831 


828786.989 


75.04-65.04 


MW-30S 


PVC 


99.64 


281518.594 


827713.938 


73.64-63.64 



Page 2 of 2 



Table 4 



Rationale for Intermediate Well Placement 



Monitoring 
Well 


Screen Depth 
(ft NGVD) 


GW Profiling 
Compounds 


Sample ID 
/Depth 


Rationale for 
Screen Placement 


MW-1M1 


26.73-21.73 


RDX, Picric 


GO IDE A/42' 




MW-1M2 


-33.27 to -38.27 


NB, Picric, 
DNT, NT 


G01DKA/102' 




MW-2M1 


37.02-32.02 






USGS Age Dating 


MW-2M2 


-4.96 to -9.96 


RDX 


G02DDA/35' 




MW-3M1 


-125.76 to -130.76 






USGS Age Dating 


MW-3M2 


-65.77 to -70.77 


RDX 


G03DMA/180' 




MW-5M1 


-1.12 to -6.12 






USGS Age Dating 


MW-5M2 


-23.94 to -28.94 


NT 


G05DJA/91' 




MW-7M1 


6.36- 1.36 






Same Elev. as 
MW1M1 


MW-7M2 


-63 .26 to -68.26 


Carbon 
Disulfide 


G07DLA/G07D 
MA 




MW-10M 


-72.69 to -77.96 






Particle track from 
MW-6 and MW-28 


MW-18M1 


-114 to -119.87 


TCE 


G18DNA/174' 


Particle track from 
CS-18 


MW-18M2 


-106.87 to -11 1.87 






Midpoint between 
Ml and S wells 


MW-23M1 


-39.28 to -^9.28 


Toluene 


G23DJA/235' 


FID at 225' 


MW-23M2 


-3.17to-13.17 






USGS Age Dating 


MW-23M3 


29.95-19.95 






USGS Age Dating 



RDX - Hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine 
NB - Nitrobenzene compounds 
DNT - Dinitrotoluene compounds 
NT - Nitrotoluene compounds 



• 



Table 5 



Well Development Summary 



Well 


Gallons Purged 


Well Volumes Purged 


Turbidity (NTU) 


MW-1S 


220 


84.6 


33.9 


MW-1D 


720 


15.6 


398 


MW-1M1 


360 


13.3 


22 


MW-1M2 


225 


18.3 


63.6 


MW-2S 


175 


79.9 


636 


MW-2D 


650 


13 


28 


MW-2M1 


210 


10.8 


10 


MW-2M2 


105 


11.7 


19 


MW-3S 


28 


16 


12.5 


MW-3D 


800 


16 


16 


MW-3M1 


250 


6.3 


54.62 


MW-3M2 


250 


6.3 


4.18 


MW-4 


82 


46.9 


4.85 


MW-5S 


350 


97.2 


121 


MW-5D 


600 


10.7 


7.1 


MW-5M1 


275 


11 


6 


MW-5M2 


200 


13.3 


18.8 


MW-6S 


80 


48.5 


6.75 


MW-7S 


190 


59.4 


29.7 


MW-7D 


600 


7.1 


116 


MW-7M1 


775 


24.1 


976 


MW-7M2 


630 


36.8 


17.3 


MW-8 


32 


21 


41 


MW-9 


187 


93.5 


40 


MW-10S 


190 


105.6 


54.5 


MW-10D 


440 


10.2 


8.8 


MW-10M 


390 


11.3 


12 


MW-11S 


50 


22.7 


4.74 


MW-12 


64 


29.1 


3.65 


MW-13S 


150 


81.1 


20 


MW-13D 


1150 


31.1 


24.3 


MW-14S 


80 


61.5 


7.01 


MW-15S 


150 


55.6 


39.6 


MW-15D 


570 


10.1 


3.39 


MW-16S 


90 


112.5 


512 


MW-16D 


690 


12.1 


16 


MW-17S 


250 


96.2 


130 


MW-17D 


530 


10 


21.9 


MW-18S 


92 


62.2 


5.44 


MW-18D 


1710 


28.9 


10 


MW-18M1 


350 


10.5 


1.5 


MW-18M2 


210 


12.1 


12.4 


MW-19S 


137.5 


91.7 


3.83 



Page 1 of 2 



t 



• 



Table 5 



Well Development Summary 



Well 


Gallons Purged 


Well Volumes Purged 


Turbidity (NTU) 


MW-19D 


1875 


29.3 


6.2 


MW-20 


287 


164 


10.4 


MW-21S 


480 


320 


56 


MW-21D 


850 


23.6 


176 


MW-22S 


520 


559 


3 


MW-23S 


110 


61.1 


8.11 


MW-23M1 


215 


7.9 


39.2 


MW-23M2 


132 


11.6 


3.54 


MW-23M3 


195 




34.4 


MW-23D 


476 


15.1 


67.8 


MW-24S 


70 


38 


0.6 


MW-25S 


65 


32.5 


3.69 


MW-26S 


140 


83.3 


23.4 


MW-27S 


54 


27 


2 


MW-28S 


60 


25 


1.8 


MW-29S 


55 


31.3 


1.25 


MW-30S 


280 


141.8 


1.21 



Page 2 of 2 



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1 


in 


NO 

CM 

i 


CM 
i 


00 

CM 

i 


On 
CM 

i 


CO 
1 


O 

CO 

1 



CM 

O 



00 



r- 

H 





73 






















4> 


JM 




















-*-> 


(4-1 




















CI 


^— ^ 




















T3 


1/3 






















C/5 




















^^ 


C> 






m 




On 










O 


J 




CN- 


■*t 


o- 


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cn- 


CN- 













m 




co 










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• — 




















C 

P 


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H 
























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a 


















o 


O 


> 




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a 


1. 


a 


cn- 


vo 


c- 


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cn- 


CN- 






o 
H 


73 


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i 




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1/5 

1/) 


















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0) 


















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s 


s 


g 


cn- 


^r 


cn- 


OO 


CN- 


CN- 




J= 


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u 


















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2 


















c 




H 




















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1/5 


















s 




o 


















13 


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en 

3 


5 


g 


cn- 


cn- 


cn- 


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o- 


CN- 




0) 


CJ 




















In 


cq 


x: 




















hJ 


H 


















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<u 


1/5 


















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c 


1/1 


















s 
o 

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5 


g 


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in 


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p- 


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<u 


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O 

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CN 


cn- 

OO 


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SO 
CN 


cn- 
*s0 


CN- 

in 

CN 








H 














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e 




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Os 


m 




in 


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as 


t> 


© 


in 

On 




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13 "5 




hi 

s 


so 


SO 


r^ 


p~ 


VO 


SO 






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Q 














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fl 


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oo 




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in 


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O T3 




3 
o 


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CN 


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l> 






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4) 

s 


a 


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OO 


cn 


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CN 




oo 


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p- 


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z 1 








v — x 














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o , 




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i 


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i 


pt 


£ 


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§ 


s 


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(L> 

a. 



Table 8 



Horizontal Hydraulic Head Calculations 



Well ID 


Date 
Measured 


Hydraulic 

Head 

Difference (ft) 


Distance 

Between Wells 

(ft) 


Calculated 

Horizontal 

Gradient (ft/ft) 


MW-3StoMW-10S 


04/01/98 


5.70 


3629 


0.0016 


MW-9S to MW-22S 


12/30/97 


4.57 


3092 


0.0015 


MW-9S to MW-22S 


04/01/98 


4.73 


3092 


0.0015 


MW-14StoMW-21S 


12/30/97 


5.53 


5612 


0.0010 


MW-14StoMW-21S 


04/01/98 


5.67 


5612 


0.0010 


MW-17StoLRWSl-2 


10/03/97 


13.29 


4372 


0.0030 


MW-17StoLRWSl-2 


12/30/97 


13.45 


4372 


0.0030 


MW-17StoLRWSl-2 


04/01/98 


12.08 


4372 


0.0028 


MW-18StoLRWS3-4 


10/03/97 


12.15 


4041 


0.0030 


MW-18StoLRWS3-4 


12/30/97 


12.10 


4041 


0.0030 


MW-19StoMW-20S 


04/01/98 


2.55 


3483 


0.0007 


MW-21StoLRWS2-2 


12/30/97 


19.05 


5522 


0.0034 


MW-22S to LRWS8-2 


12/30/97 


14.46 


4997 


0.0029 


MW-28S to MW-14S 


12/30/97 


0.73 


2785 


0.0003 


MW-28S to MW-14S 


04/01/98 


0.68 


2785 


0.0002 


MW-29StoMW-12S 


10/03/97 


0.75 


1457 


0.0005 


MW-29StoMW-12S 


12/30/97 


0.42 


1457 


0.0003 


MW-29StoMW-12S 


04/01/98 


0.58 


1457 


0.0004 


MW-29StoMW-18S 


10/03/97 


9.26 


9456 


0.0010 


MW-29StoMW-18S 


12/30/97 


9.06 


9456 


0.0010 


MW-29StoMW-18S 


04/01/98 


8.09 


9456 


0.0009 



Table 9 

Comparison of CRREL Screening Method Parameters with 
EPA Method 8330 Parameters 



, 



Compound Name 


Acronym 


CRREL 


8330 


2,4,6-trinitrotoluene 


TNT 


X 


X 


1,3,5-trinitrobenzene 


TNB 


X 


X 


1 ,3-dinitrobenzene 


DNB 


X 


X 


2,4-dinitrotoluene 


2,4-DNT 


X 


X 


2,6-dinitrotoluene 


2,6-DNT 


X 


X 


MethyI-2,4,6-trinitrophenolnitramine 


tetryl 


X 


X 


2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene 


2A-4,6-DNT 




X 


4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene 


4A-2,6-DNT 




X 


2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene 


2,6-DANT 




a 


2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene 


2,4-DANT 




a 


Nitrotoluene (3 isomers) 


NT 




X 


Nitrobenzene 


NB 




X 


Hexahydro- 1 ,3,5-trinitro- 1 ,3,5-triazine 


RDX 


X 


X 


Octyhydro- 1 ,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1 ,3,5,7-tetrazocine 


HMX 


X 


X 


Nitrocellulose 


NC 


X 




Nitroglycerin 


NG 


X 


a 


Pentaerythritol tetranitrate 


PETN 


X 


a 


Ammonium 2,4,6-trinitrophenoxide/ 
2,4,6-trinitrophenol 


AP/PA 


X 


a 



% 



X - Included in standard method 

a - Added by laboratory to standard method 



Table 10 



Comparison of CRREL Screening Method with EPA Method 8330 Results 



CRREL 

Screening 
Method 


Media 


Number of 
Samples 


Percent 
Agreement 


Percent 

False 
Positives 


Percent 

False 
Negatives 


TNT/DNT 


Surface Soil 


214 


21 


78 


1 


TNT/DNT 


Subsurface 
Soil 


38 


97 


3 





TNT/DNT 


Sediments 


15 


80 


20 





RDX/HMX 


Surface Soil 


214 


67 


33 





RDX/HMX 


Subsurface 
Soil 


38 


68 


29 


3 


RDX/HMX 


Sediments 


14 


27 


73 






• 



Table 11 

Comparison of DNT Explosive Results for 
Method 8330 and Method OM31B 



Ogden 
ID 


Method 8330 
Result (ug/kg) 


Flag 


Method OM31B 
Result (ug/kg) 


Flag 


B02NAA 


120 


U* 


31 


J* 


S19DAA 


120 


u 


370 


UJ 


S19DAD 


120 


u 


1800 


J 


B12CAA 


120 


u* 


66 


J* 


BGHAAA 


120 


u* 


100 


J* 


BGHAAD 


120 


u* 


380 


u* 


BGHBAA 


120 


u* 


260 


J* 


BGHMAA 


120 


u* 


600 


* 


BGHMAD 


120 


u* 


400 


u* 


BGMLAA 


1300 


* 


340 


u* 


BGHJAA 


120 


u* 


280 


J* 


BGHKAA 


120 


u* 


82 


J* 


BGMFAA 


120 


u* 


460 


* 


BGMFAD 


120 


u* 


150 


J* 


S19DAA 


120 


u 


370 


u 


S19DAD 


120 


u 


40 


J 


BGHMAA 


120 


u* 


29 


J* 


BGHMAD 


120 


u* 


400 


u* 



U = Not detected above quantitation limit 

J = Estimated concentration 

UJ = Not detected above the estimated quantitation limit 



Table 12 



Media Sampled and Number of Toluene Detects 



Media 


Number of Detects 


Surface Soil 


7 + 1 duplicate 


Deep Soil 


3 + 1 duplicate 


Sediment 


17 + 4 duplicates 


Surface Water 


7 + 1 duplicate 


Wells Groundwater 


3 


Grab Groundwater 


11 + 1 duplicate 


Total 


48 + 8 duplicates 




Monitoring Well 
Equipment Blanks 


16 


Profiling Equipment Blanks 


3 


Soil Equipment Blanks 


2 


Soil Trip Blanks 


2 


Total 


23 



Table 13 



Trichloroethylene (TCE) Detects for All Soil Samples 



Ogden ID 


TCE Result 
(ug/kg) 


EPA Flags 


Analysis Date 


S28DAA 


4 


J 


8/7/97 


S02DAA 


7 


J 


8/28/97 


S09DAD 


1 


J 


8/28/97 


S19DAD 


2 


J 


8/28/97 


S15DCA 


1 


J 


9/4/97 


B02IAA 


4 


J 


9/22/97 


B02MAA 


1 


J 


9/22/97 


B14AAA 


1 


J 


9/22/97 


B14BAA 


2 


J 


9/22/97 


B14BAD 


2 


J 


9/22/97 


B10AAA 


3 


J 


9/24/97 


B04DAA 


3 


J 


10/29/97 


B06BAA 


1 


J 


10/31/97 


B08EAA 


2 


J 


10/31/97 


B03IAA 


1 


J 


11/4/97 


B03AAA 


4 


J 


11/5/97 


B13DAA 


2 


J 


1 1/5/97 


BM6CAD 


1 


J 


11/10/97 


BM8AAA 


1 


J 


11/10/97 


BM8BAA 


2 


J 


11/10/97 


BM8CAA 


2 


J 


11/10/97 



J - Estimated value 



Table 14 

Comparison of IAGS BEHP Groundwater Results (ug/L) with 
Jacobs Engineering Results for the CS-19 Wells 



Well 


USACHPPM 
1994 


Jacobs Eng. 
1996 


IAGS 
1997 


CS19-MW002 


<10 


5.4 U 


36 


CS19-MW005E 


NA 


0.8 U 


5U 


CS19-MW006E 


NA 


0.8 U 


59 


CS19-MW007C 


NA 


3.4 U 


5U 


CS19-MW007E 


NA 


1.3 U 


5U 


CS19-MW009E 


NA 


0.8 U 


2J 


CS19-MW010A 


NA 


7.3 J 


5U 


CS19-MW011E 


NA 


2.1 UJ 


4J 



NA - Not analyzed 

U - Not detected 

J -Estimated Value 

UJ - Nondetect at an estimated reporting limit 



• 



Table 15 

Comparison of IAGS BEHP Results (ug/L) for 
Groundwater with EPA Split Samples 



Sample ID 


IAGS 


EPA 


W27SSA 


5U 


10U 


WL23XA 


20 J 


120 


W30SSA 


1 J 


10U 


W09SSA 


4J 


6J 


W18SSA 


36 B 


23 U 


WC7EXA 


24 UJ 


30 U 


W01SSA 


4J 


10U 


W25SSA 


1 J 


10U 


W21SSA 


U 


2J 


W23SSA 


24 


8J 


W04SSA 


30 


24 J 


W06SSA 


3 J 


25 


W10SSA 


5 J 


2J 


W17SSA 


23 UJ 


3 J 


W17SSD 


120 J 


29 



U- No detection above reportable limit 

UJ- Not detected at an estimated reporting limit 

J- Value estimated 

B - Laboratory blank contamination was 

present in this sample run 



• 



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Location of Sampling Areas 



Area 3 


Well No. 
(depth) 


Location Name/ 
Description 


Sample Methods/Media 


1 


3(S,M2,M1,D) 


Area of Depression w/ Ground 
Scar 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


2 


2(S, M2, Ml, 

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26 (S) 


Site 3 /Target Area/Burn Area 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


3 


1 (S,M2,M1,D) 


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barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


4 


27 (S) 


Site 4 Mounds 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


5 




Site 5 


hand auger (soil) 


6 


7(S,M2,M1,D) 


Burn Area (southeast of 
Turpentine) 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


7 


8(S) 


Burn Areas (southwest of 
Turpentine) 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


8 




Succonsette Pond 


sediment/surface water 
hand auger (soil) 


9 


4(S) 


(well on Pocasset Road north 
of Five Corners) 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil: control area) 

groundwater 


10 


5(S,M1,M2, D) 


(well north of Wood Road) 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil: control area) 

groundwater 



Page 1 of 5 



Table 17 



Location of Sampling Areas 



Area" 


Well No. 
(depth) 


Location Name/ 
Description 


Sample Methods/Media 


11 


25 (S) 


(well southeast of CS- 19) 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil: control area) 

groundwater 




6(S) 


(well north of Area 5) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 


12 


19(S,D) 


Demo Area 1 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


13 


16(S,D) 


Demo Area 2 


barber rig (soil) 

hand auger (soil) 

groundwater 


14 




(access road to MW-7) 


hand auger (soil: control area) 




9(S) 


none (well southwest of 
CS-19) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




10(S,M1,D) 


none (well on west Jefferson 
Road) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




11 (S) 


none (well midway along 
Jefferson) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




12 (S) 


none (well on Barlow south of 
Wood) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




13 (S, D) 


none (well near J-3 range 
south of Chadwick) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




14 (S) 


none (well at the corner of 
Wheelock and Turpentine) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




15(S,D) 


none (well at the corner of 
Spruce Swamp and Sandwich) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 


15 




Site 6 


hand auger (soil) 



Page 2 of 5 



Table 17 



Location of Sampling Areas 



Area 3 


Well No. 
(depth) 


Location Name/ 
Description 


Sample Methods/Media 




28 (S) 


none (well at corner of 
Wheelock and Chadwick) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




29 (S) 


none (well at the corner of 
Barlow and Chadwick) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 




17 (S, D) 


none (well southeast of 
Demo-2) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




18 (S, M2, Ml, 
D) 


none (well on east end of 
Gibbs) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




20 (S) 


none (well on west end of 
Pocasset Forestdale) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




21 (S, D) 


none (well on south end of 
Burgoyne) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




22 (S) 


none (well midway on 
Burgoyne) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




23 (S, M3, M2, 
M1,D) 


none (well north end of 
Burgoyne) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




24 (S) 


none (well near Rod & Gun 
Club) 


rotosonic rig (soil) 
groundwater 




30 (S) 


none (well on the J-3 Range) 


barber rig (soil) 
groundwater 


16 




GP-16 (High-use gun 
position) 


hand auger (soil) 


17 




GP-7 (Mixed-use gun 
position) 


hand auger (soil) 


18 




GP-18 (Low-use gun position) 


hand auger (soil) 


19 




MP-8 (High-use mortar 
position) 


hand auger (soil) 



Page 3 of 5 



Table 17 



Location of Sampling Areas 



Area" 


Well No. 
(depth) 


Location Name/ 
Description 


Sample Methods/Media 


20 




MP-3, -6 (Mixed-use mortar 
postn.) 


hand auger (soil) 


21 




MP-5 (Low-use mortar 
position) 


hand auger (soil) 


22 




Control area near mortar 
positions 


hand auger (soil: control) 


23 




J-3 Wetland Area (Drainage 
swale) 


hand auger (soil) 


24 


Not Sampled 


Drainage swale (NW of Snake 
Pd.) 


hand auger (soil) 


25 




Rod & Gun Club pond 


sediment/surface water 


26 




Deep Bottom Pond 


sediment/surface water 


27 




Round Swamp 


sediment/surface water 


28 




Grassy Pond 


sediment/surface water 


29 




Ox Pond 


sediment/surface water 


30 




Donnely Pond 


sediment/surface water 


31 




Little Halfway Pond 


sediment/surface water 


32 




Raccoon Swamp 


sediment/surface water (control) 


33 




Snake Pond 


sediment/surface water 


34 




Baileys Pond 


sediment/surface water 


35 




Gibbs Pond 


sediment/surface water 


36 




Opening Pond 


sediment/surface water 


37 




Bypass Bog 


sediment/surface water 



Page 4 of 5 



Table 17 



Location of Sampling Areas 



Area 3 


Well No. 
(depth) 


Location Name/ 
Description 


Sample Methods/Media 


38 


Not Sampled 


Control area near gun 
positions 


hand auger (soil: control) 


39 




Great Pond 


sediment/surface water (control) 


40 




Doughnut Pond 


sediment/surface water (control) 


41 




Shawme-Crowell State Forest 


hand auger (soil: control) 


42 




Four Ponds Conservation 
Area 


hand auger (soil: control) 


43 




Upper Pond 


sediment/surface water (control) 


Notes: (a) Boring sampling locations do not have unique area numbers 



Page 5 of 5 



Table 18 



Frequency of Detection in Background Soil Samples 



ANALYTE 


Frequency 
of Detection 

(%) in 
Surface Soil 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 

Surface 

Soil 


Frequency 
of Detection 

(%) in 

Subsurface 

Soil 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 

Subsurface 

Soil 


2,4,5-T 


4.35 


NC 





NC 


Aluminum 


100 


13608 


100 


16441 


Antimony 


34.78 


NC 


47.62 


NC 


Arsenic 


100 


4.7 


100 


4.9 


Barium 


100 


19 


100 


30 


Beryllium 


91.3 


0.3 


100 


0.3 


Beta BHC 





NC 


4.55 


NC 


Calcium 


100 


229 


100 


181 


Chromium, Total 


100 


13 


100 


18 


Chrysene 


4.35 


NC 





NC 


Cobalt 


91.3 


3.1 


100 


4.6 


Copper 


100 


3.5 


100 


5.6 


DDE 


72 


0.008 


4.55 


NC 


DDT 


92 


0.015 


27.27 


NC 


Dicamba 


8.7 


NC 





NC 


Diethyl Phthalate 


30.43 


NC 


30 


NC 


Endosulfan Sulfate 


4 


NC 





NC 


Fluoranthene 


21.74 


NC 





NC 


Heptachlor 


4 


NC 





NC 


Iron 


100 


15501 


100 


16946 


Lead 


100 


19 


100 


10 


Magnesium 


100 


1162 


100 


1734 


Manganese 


100 


47 


100 


114 


MCPA 


86.96 


20 





NC 


MCPP 


4.35 


NC 


4.76 


NC 


Mercury 


8.7 


NC 


9.52 


NC 


Nickel 


95.65 


9.1 


100 


13 


Nitrate/Nitrite (As N) 


100 


0.1 


95.24 


0.04 


Nitrogen, Ammonia (As N) 


100 


27 


52.38 


NC 


Pentachlorophenol 





NC 


2.44 


NC 


Phenanthrene 


4.35 


NC 





NC 


Phosphorus, Total Orthophosphate 
(As Po4) 


100 


127 


100 


141 


Potassium 


100 


459 


100 


570 


Pyrene 


26.09 


NC 





NC 



Table 18 



Frequency of Detection in Background Soil Samples 



ANALYTE 


Frequency 
of Detection 

(%) in 
Surface Soil 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 

Surface 

Soil 


Frequency 
of Detection 

(%) in 

Subsurface 

Soil 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 

Subsurface 

Soil 


Selenium 


17.39 


NC 


28.57 


NC 


Silvex (2,4,5-Tp) 


4.35 


NC 





NC 


Thallium 





NC 


4.76 


NC 


Vanadium 


100 


29 


100 


29 


Zinc 


100 


46 


100 


101 



UTL - Upper tolerance limit. 
NC - Not calculated. 



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Table 29 



Radiological Survey Results for Areas 4 and 5. 



> 







Survey-1 






Survey 2 




Survey3 






Location 


CBte 


alpha 


beta-garrma 


Cae 


alpha beta-garrma 


Cae 


alpha 


beta-garrma 


Comments 






(cpnl 


(cpnl 




(cpm) (cpm) 




(cpm! 


(cpm 




G6A 


1/1698 


<10 


<E0 


1/2596 


60 


1/2896 





<so 


100Om GP 


06B 


1/1596 


<10 


<E0 


1/2696 


100 


1/2898 





<so 


top 1st timel barrier 


(EC 


1/1693 


40 


<S0 


1/2596 


<10 


1/2896 





<so 


bottom 1st tLmel barrier 


05D 


1/1698 


210 


<S0 


1/2696 


210 


1/2896 





<so 


top 2nd tmel barrier 


05E 


1/1093 


<10 


<S0 


1/2596 


^cr™ 


1/2896 





<so 


bottom 2nd ttmel barrier 


05F 


1/1496 


<10 


<S0 


1/2598 


<10 


2f398 





<so 


dearing east of 2000m GP 


05G 
06H 


1/1493 
1/2W6 


<10 
<10 


<90 


1/2596 
1/2698 


<10 
<10 


2398 
1/2398 






<90 

<so 


dearing east of 200Ckn GP 


bottom lOOOmtarget 


oa 


1/2W6 


<10 


<so 


1/2696 


<10 


1/2398 





<so 


top 100Om target 


05J 


1/21/96 


<I0 


<so 


1/2698 


>5000 


1/2896 





<S3 


150m GP 


Q6K 


1/21/96 


<10 


<so 


1/2698 


<10 


1/2396 





<S0 


bottom 150m target 


06L 


1/2W6 


<10 


<90 


1/2598 


<10 


1/2398 





<50 


top 150m target 


C5M 


1/21(96 


<10 


<so 


1/2696 


-do-*™ 


1/2898 





<50 


barms beside 150m target 


06N 


1/2W8 


<10 


<so 


1/2696 


<10 


1/2398 





<50 


around steet-sided pit 


05O 2 


















abound 50Oround pit 


06P 


1/1496 


<10 


<so 


1/2598 


<10 


2398 





<0 


2000m GP 


06Q 


1/2W6 


<10 


<S0 


1/2696 




2398 





<50 


control grid for Aea 5 


C54 


1/2096 


<10 


<S0 


1/2696 


<10 


2398 





<S0 


bum kettle 


GSA 












2/396 





<S0 


100m target 


G6B 












1/2896 


2CW0 1 


<so 


1000m target 


G5C 


12/1097 





<40 






2398 





<so 


steel-sided pit bottom 


GSD 


12^097 





<40 






2398 





<so 


steel-sided pit spoils 


GEE? 


















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GEF 5 


















SOOrouxi pit spoils 




04A 








1/2696 


200 


1/2398 





<50 


2000m 2nd backstop top 


04B 








1/2598 


<icr ro 


1/2398 





<50 


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04C 








1/2596 


<10 


1/2896 





<S0 


2000m between backstops 


oo 








1/2696 


<10 


1/2398 





<50 


2000m 1st backstop base 


04E 








1/2696 


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1/2896 





<S0 


2000m 1st backstop tcp 


04F 








1/2698 


300 


1/2396 





<S0 


topo depression 


04G 








1/2696 


<10 


1/2896 





<S0 


oortirj grid far Aea4 



Sharing =Slrveys land 2 were later found to be invalid de to rr^fijiclioring hstarrert 



cpm= courts per rrirute 

*= M(te nadafion detected h the a'r at several feet above ground sufaoe 

' = Detection on actual stee! plate, lower left side 

2 = Location wB be suveyed when ecavatcn operations are oorrplete 

<X = no measuerrent above background where X = background 



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Frequency of Detection in Background Groundwater Samples 



ANALYTE 


Frequency of 

Detection (%) in 

Groundwater 


UTL (mg/L) in 
Groundwater 


Aluminum 


47 


NC 


Antimony 


13 


NC 


Barium 


53 


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69 


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Boron 


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27 


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100 


4.5 


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100 


38 


Chloroform 


80 


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Chromium, total 


13 


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Cobalt 


7 


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Copper 


13 


NC 


Dieldrin 


6 


NC 


Iron 


80 


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Lead 


27 


NC 


Magnesium 


100 


3.4 


Manganese 


100 


0.15 


MCPP 


6 


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Molybdenum 


14 


NC 


Nickel 


40 


NC 


Nitrate/Nitrite (As N) 


94 


0.8 


Nitrogen, Ammonia (As N) 


22 


NC 


Phosphorus, Total Orthophosphate (As Po4) 


94 


0.2 


Potassium 


73 


NC 


Selenium 


7 


NC 


Sodium 


100 


15.7 


Sulfate 


94 


12.3 


Vanadium 


7 


NC 


Zinc 


93 


5.5 



UTL - Upper tolerance limit. 
NC - Not calculated. 



• 



0* 



Table 70 



Explosive Detects in Groundwater Monitoring Well Samples 



Well Name 


Sample ID 


Screen Depth 
(ft NGVD) 


Screen 

Depth 

BWT (ft) 


Analyte 


Concentration 
(ug/L) 


Qualifier 


Well IS 


W01SSA 


72.75 - 62.75 


0-10 


HMX 


0.59 




Well IS 


W01SSA 


72.75-62.75 


0-10 


RDX 


2.5 




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72.75 - 62.75 


0-10 


HMX 


0.53 




Well lSdup 


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72.75 - 62.75 


0-10 


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2.4 




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26.73-21.73 


40-45 


RDX 


4.6 




Well 2M2 


W02M2A 


-4.96 to -9.96 


31-36 


RDX 


13 




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W16SSA 


64.14-54.14 


0-10 


PA 


0.29 


J 


Well 16S 


W16SSA 


64.14-54.14 


0-10 


RDX 


1.3 


J 


Well 18D 


W18DDA 


- 159.29 to - 
169.29 


228-238 


PA 


0.56 


J 


Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


2A-4,6-DNT 


2.3 


J 


Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


4A-2,6-DNT 


4.5 


J 


Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


HMX 


44 




Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


RDX 


190 




Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


TNT 


10 


J 


Well 19D 


W19DDA 


- 182.08 to - 
187.08 


243-248 


RDX 


0.4 


J 


Well23Ml 


W23M1A 


-39.28 to -49.28 


99-109 


RDX 


2.3 


J 


Well 25S 


W25SSA 


71-68-61.78 


0-10 


RDX 


2.0 




Well 30S 


W30SSA 


73.64-63.64 


1-10 


4A-2,6-DNT 


0.52 




Well 30S 


W30SSA 


73.64-63.64 


1-10 


HMX 


12 




CS19-MW0002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


2A-4,6-DNT 


0.6 




CS19-MW0002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


4A-2,6-DNT 


0.7 


J 


CS19-MW0002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


HMX 


7.6 




CS19-MW0002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


RDX 


19 




CS19-MW0006E 


WC6EXA 


72.33 - 62.33 


0-10 


RDX 


1.2 




CS19-MW0006E 
dup 


WC6EXD 


72.33 - 62.33 


0-10 


RDX 


1.1 




CS19-MW009E 


WC9EXA 


53.33-48.33 


21-26 


HMX 


3.2 




CS19-MW009E 


WC9EXA 


53.33-48.33 


21-26 


PETN 


39 




CS19-MW009E 


WC9EXA 


53.33-48.33 


21-26 


RDX 


7.7 




CS19-MW0011E 


WCX11A 


49.39 - 44.39 


25-30 


RDX 


0.96 




FS12-WT0013 


WF13XA 


71.10-61.10 


2-12 


2,4-DANT 


0.44 


J 


FS12-WT0013 


WF13XA 


71.10-61.10 


2-12 


RDX 


5.2 


J 



NGVD - National Geodetic Vertical Datum 
BWT - Below water table 



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VOC Detects Excluding Acetone and Chloroform 
in Groundwater Monitoring Well Samples 



Well Name 


Sample 
ID 


Screen Depth 
(ft NGVD) 


Screen 

Depth 

BWT (ft) 


Analyte 


Concentration 
(ug/L) 


Qualifier 


Well 1M1 


W01M1A 


-33.27 to -38.27 


60-65 


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0.5 


J 


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-103.28 to - 

113.28 


174-184 


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2 


J 


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W02SSA 


70.19-60.19 


0-10 


Toluene 


18 




Well 2M2 


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-4.96 to -9.96 


31-36 


Benzene 


0.4 


J 


Well 2M2 


W02M2A 


-4.96 to -9.96 


31-36 


Toluene 


0.2 


J 


WelI2Ml 


W02M1A 


37.02-32.02 


73-78 


BDCM 


0.4 


J 


WelI2Ml 


W02M1A 


37.02-32.02 


73-78 


DBCM 


0.9 


J 


Well2Ml 


W02M1A 


37.02-32.02 


73-78 


MTBE 


0.94 




Well 2D 


W02DDA 


-147.7 to -152.7 


287-295 


Toluene 


1 




Well3M2 


W03M2A 


-65.77 to -70.77 


136-141 


Toluene 


1 




Well 5S 


W05SSA 


65-55 


0-10 


Toluene 


1 




Well 7S 


W07SSA 


73.36-63.36 


0-10 


Xylenes 


0.2 


J 


Well US 


W11SSA 


122- 132 


0-10 


Xylenes 


0.2 


J 


Well US dup 


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122- 132 


0-10 


Xylenes 


0.3 


J 


Well 15D 


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-149.2 to -159.2 


212-227 


DBCM 


0.3 


J 


Well 16D 


W16DDA 


-165.92 to - 
170.92 


108-113 


MTBE 


0.7 


J 


Well 18M1 


W18M1A 


-114.87 to - 

119.87 


170-175 


TCE 


4 




Well 18D 


W18SSA 


60.7 -70.7 


0-10 


Xylenes 


0.7 


J 


Well 19S 


W19SSA 


73.14-63.14 


0-10 


Toluene 


0.4 


J 


Well 19D 


W19DDA 


-182.08 to - 
187.08 


243-248 


Benzene 


4 




Well 19D 


W19DDA 


-182.08 to - 
187.08 


243-248 


Toluene 


2 




Well30S 


W30SSA 


73.64-63.64 


0-10 


Toluene 


3 




CS19- 
MW002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


MTBE 


0.86 




CS19- 

MW002 


WC2XXA 


unknown 


unknown 


Toluene 


1 





Page 1 of 1 



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Table 75 

Statistical Comparison of Total Metal (Unfiltered) Results for All Results and 
Background Groundwater with Data Grouped by Depth 



Data Set 


Count 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Median 




TOTAL ALUMINUM (ug/L) 


All Results 


111 


691 


1833 


12 


11,600 


56 


Background 


17 


105 


158 


12 


247 


28 


Shallow 


52 


538 


1924 


12 


11,600 


22 


Intermediate 


20 


477 


1011 


12 


4270 


35 


Deep 


24 


1465 


2461 


21 


9880 


410 


TOTAL CHROMIUM 


(ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


3.0 


7.4 


0.7 


60 


1.1 


Background 


17 


1.2 


0.5 


0.7 


2.9 


1.1 


Shallow 


52 


3.0 


8.5 


0.7 


60 


1.3 


Intermediate 


24 


1.5 


1.2 • 


0.7 


6.4 


1.1 


Deep 


24 


5.3 


9.5 


0.7 


33 


1.3 


TOTAL COPPER (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


2.6 


2.6 




24 


2.3 


Background 


17 


2.4 


0.7 




4.2 


2.3 


Shallow 


52 


2.2 


3.2 




24 


1.3 


Intermediate 


21 


3.0 


2.2 




12 


2.3 


Deep 


24 


3.0 


2.4 




11 


1.3 


TOTAL IRON (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


1694 


4476 


20 


29,900 


174 


Background 


17 


2580 


4617 


26 


18,600 


1120 


Shallow 


52 


233 


669 


20 


4380 


39 


Intermediate 


21 


2343 


5947 


20 


26,700 


280 


Deep 


24 


2024 


3037 


43 


12,200 


807 


TOTAL LEAD (ug/L) 


All Results 


117 


2.6 


2.0 


1.7 


20 


1.8 


Background 


17 


1.9 


0.2 


1.7 


2.5 


1.8 


Shallow 


52 


2.2 


2.6 


1.7 


20 


1.7 


Intermediate 


21 


2.1 


1.0 


1.7 


6.0 


1.8 


Deep 


24 


2.6 


1.7 


1.7 


7.4 


1.8 


TOTAL MANGANESE (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


127 


228 


0.4 


1820 


54 


Background 


17 


51 


47 


0.8 


120 


57 


Shallow 


52 


152 


294 


1.6 


1820 


23 


Intermediate 


21 


97 


217 


0.4 


1010 


24 


Deep 


24 


154 


117 


14 


451 


119 


TOTAL NICKEL (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


3.3 


2.8 


0.9 


16 


2.3 



Page 1 of 2 



Table 75 

Statistical Comparison of Total Metal (Unfiltered) Results for All Results and 
Background Groundwater with Data Grouped by Depth 



Data Set 


Count 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Median 


Background 


17 


3.5 


2.0 


1.4 


8.7 


2.4 


Shallow 


52 


18 


69 


0.2 


480 


1.6 


Intermediate 


21 


3.4 


2.7 


0.9 


10 


2.1 


Deep 


24 


3.2 


2.4 


0.9 


11 


2.2 


TOTAL ZINC (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


323 


1109 


2.4 


7210 


9.5 


Background 


17 


1638 


1777 


4.7 


4510 


1530 


Shallow 


52 


10 


8.0 


2.4 


44 


9.1 


Intermediate 


21 


666 


1713 


3.5 


7210 


9.7 


Deep 


24 


15 


12 


3.1 


49 


9.6 



Page 2 of 2 



Table 76 

Statistical Comparison of Dissolved Metal (Filtered) Results for All Results and 
Background Groundwater with Data Grouped by Depth 



Data Set 


Count 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Median 




DISSOLVED ALUMINUM (ug/L) 


All Results 


111 


104 


373 


12 


3620 


24 


Background 


17 


17 


6.1 


12 


28 


12 


Shallow 


52 


160 


535 


12 


3620 


23 


Intermediate 


20 


103 


299 


12 


1370 


26 


Deep 


24 


245 


729 


12 


3620 


149 


DISSOLVED CHROMIUM (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


1.3 


0.9 


0.7 


8.7 




Background 


17 


1.3 


0.7 


0.7 


3.5 




Shallow 


52 


1.3 


1.2 


0.9 


8.7 




Intermediate 


21 


1.3 


0.5 


0.7 


2.6 




Deep 


24 


1.6 


1.7 


0.7 


8.7 




DISSOLVED COPPER (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


2.1 


1.2 




9.3 


2.3 


Background 


17 


2.4 


0.9 




5.1 


2.3 


Shallow 


52 


2.0 


1.4 




9.3 


1.5 


Intermediate 


21 


2.3 


0.5 




3.4 


2.3 


Deep 


24 


2.1 


1.3 




5.5 


2.3 


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ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


285 


692 


20 


4380 


54 


Background 


17 


621 


960 


26 


3310 


328 


Shallow 


52 


18 


69 


0.2 


480 


1.6 


Intermediate 


21 


589 


1116 


20 


3390 


33 


Deep 


24 


393 


914 


24 


4380 


807 


DISSOLVED LEAD 


(ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


1.8 


0.3 


1.7 


4.4 


1.8 


Background 


17 


1.8 


0.03 


1.7 


1.8 


1.8 


Shallow 


52 


1.8 


0.5 


1.7 


4.4 


1.7 


Intermediate 


21 


1.8 


0.2 


1.7 


2.6 


1.8 


Deep 


24 


1.8 


0.05 


1.7 


1.8 


1.8 


DISSOLVED MANAGENSE (ug/L) 


All Results 


112 


105 


209 


0.4 


1880 


45 


Background 


17 


41 


32 


1.2 


80 


44 


Shallow 


52 


139 


290 


1.1 


1880 


24 


Intermediate 


21 


68 


103 


0.4 


453 


37 


Deep 


24 


118 


100 


11 


398 


20 


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All Results 


112 


2.8 


2.2 


0.9 


13 


2.1 


Background 


17 


3.5 


1.8 


1.6 


8.7 


2.5 



Page 1 of 2 



I 



Table 76 



Statistical Comparison of Dissolved Metal (Filtered) Results for All Results and 
Background Groundwater with Data Grouped by Depth 



Data Set 


Count 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Median 


Shallow 


52 


2.5 


1.8 


0.9 


8.9 


2.1 


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21 


3.0 


2.5 


0.9 


8.7 


2.1 


Deep 


24 


3.3 


3.2 


0.9 


13 


2.2 


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All Results 


112 


285 


915 


7.8 


4620 


7.8 


Background 


17 


1560 


1568 


5 


4410 


1640 


Shallow 


52 


9.9 


8.0 


2.8 


44.4 


7.9 


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21 


539 


1240 


3.1 


4620 


6.6 


Deep 


24 


7.9 


5.7 


1.9 


28 


9.6 



* 



• 



Page 2 of 2 



Table 77 



Frequency of Detection in Background Sediment and Surface Water Samples 



ANALYTE 


Frequency 

of Detection 

(%) in 

Sediment 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 
Sediment 


Frequency of 

Detection 

(%) in 

Surface 

Water 


UTL 

(mg/L) in 

Surface 

Water 


2,4-DB 





NC 


5 


NC 


2-Methylphenol 


5 


NC 





NC 


4-Methylphenol 


5 


NC 





NC 


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5 


NC 





NC 


Aldrin 


5 


NC 


5 


NC 


Alpha-Chlordane 





NC 


5 


NC 


Aluminum 


100 


17280 


100 


0.3 


Anthracene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Antimony 


10 


NC 


10 


NC 


Arsenic 


10 


NC 


10 


NC 


Barium 


100 


40 


50 


NC 


Benzo(a)anthracene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Benzo(a)pyrene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Benzo(b)fluoranthene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Benzo(ghi)perylene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Benzo(k)fluoranthene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Beryllium 


100 


0.9 


5 


NC 


BEHP 


20 


NC 


5 


NC 


Boron 





NC 


5 


NC 


Cadmium 


55 


NC 


30 


NC 


Calcium 


100 


4137 


100 


3.8 


Chloride (as CI) 


NA 


NC 


100 


20 


Chromium, Total 


100 


25 


30 


NC 


Chrysene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Cobalt 


35 


NC 





NC 


Copper 


90 


8.2 


10 


NC 


DDD 


30 


NC 


5 


NC 


DDE 


35 


NC 


5 


NC 


DDT 


15 


NC 


5 


NC 


Dieldrin 


35 


NC 





NC 


Endrin Aldehyde 





NC 


5 


NC 


Fluoranthene 


10 


NC 





NC 


Fluorene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Indeno( 1 23cd)pyrene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Iron 


100 


8082 


95 


1.2 


Lead 


100 


38 


15 


NC 


Magnesium 


80 


2879 


100 


2 


Manganese 


100 


48 


100 


0.09 



Page 1 of 2 



* 



• 



Table 77 



Frequency of Detection in Background Sediment and Surface Water Samples 



ANALYTE 

MCPA 


Frequency 

of Detection 

(%) in 

Sediment 

45 


UTL 

(mg/kg) in 
Sediment 

NC 


Frequency of 

Detection 

(%) in 

Surface 

Water 




UTL 

(mg/L) in 

Surface 

Water 

NC 


MCPP 


5 


NC 





NC 


Mercury 


10 


NC 





NC 


Molybdenum 


50 


NC 


5 


NC 


Nickel 


25 


NC 


5 


NC 


Nitrate/Nitrite (As N) 


100 


1.6 


80 


0.7 


Nitrogen, Ammonia (As N) 


95 


524 


90 


0.12 


PCB-1260 





NC 


10 


NC 


Phenanthrene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Phosphorus, Total Orthophosphate 
(As Po4) 


95 


502 


85 


0.07 


Potassium 


45 


NC 


100 


1.2 


Pyrene 


5 


NC 





NC 


Selenium 


15 


NC 





NC 


Silver 





NC 


20 


NC 


Sodium 





NC 


100 


13 


Sulfate 





NC 


100 


8.8 


Thallium 


10 


NC 


15 


NC 


Vanadium 


100 


27 


35 


NC 


Zinc 


100 


35 


100 


0.03 



UTL - Upper tolerance limit. 
NC - Not calculated. 



Page 2 of 2 



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Statistical Comparison of Field Parameter Results for All Results 

and Background Groundwater with Data Grouped by Depth 



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Data Set 


Count 


Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Median 




DISSOLVED OXYGEN (mg/L) 


All Results 


87 


7.3 


4.3 


0.1 


12.8 


7.9 


Background 


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9.5 


2.8 


2.6 


12.2 


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Shallow 


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Intermediate 


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Deep 


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5.1 


4.0 


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REDOX (mv) 


All Results 


116 


172 


218 


-480 


465 


231 


Background 


14 


91 


182 


-227 


343 


33 


Shallow 


48 


261 


174 


-171 


465 


304 


Intermediate 


24 


158 


182 


-73 


420 


159 


Deep 


27 


-26 


222 


-480 


434 


-54 


pH (units) 


All Results 


117 


6.3 


0.9 


4.6 


9.2 


6.1 


Background 


14 


6.1 


0.6 


5.2 


7.3 


6.3 


Shallow 


49 


5.9 


0.6 


4.6 


8.4 


5.8 


Intermediate 


24 


6.3 


0.5 


5.2 


7.6 


6.3 


Deep 


27 


7.2 


1.0 


5.8 


9.2 


6.9 


SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (umhos/cm) 


All Results 


112 


86 


48 


35 


305 


71 


Background 


14 


109 


65 


48 


281 


88 


Shallow 


47 


78 


53 


35 


305 


65 


Intermediate 


24 


89 


53 


35 


281 


71 


Deep 


25 


96 


37 


58 


223 


89 


TEMPERATURE (°C) 


All Results 


117 


9.5 


1.6 


4.6 


13.2 


9.6 


Background 


14 


9.3 


1.4 


7.3 


13.2 


9.0 


Shallow 


49 


10.0 


1.6 


5.4 


13.0 


10.4 


Intermediate 


24 


9.2 


1.6 


6.1 


13.2 


9.1 


Deep 


27 


9.2 


1.8 


4.6 


11.5 


9.8 


TURBIDITY (NTU) 


All Results 


117 


30 


66 


0.2 


480 


4.4 


Background 


15 


16 


19 


1.6 


76 


10 


Shallow 


49 


17 


69 


0.2 


480 


2.6 


Intermediate 


24 


37 


76 


0.7 


286 


6.7 


Deep 


27 


54 


64 


0.8 


233 


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